Chemistry- (Organic Chemistry)

HideShow resource information

Alcohols

  • The general formula of an alcohol is CnH2n+1OH 
  • All alchols contain the same '-OH group'. You need to know the first 3

(http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/165/169289/GIFS/BLB9CH0209-006.gif)

  • Dont write CH40 instead of CH3OH. The second shows that it is in the functional -OH group

.

Combustion of Alcohol

  • 2CH3OH1 + 3O2 --> 2CO2 + 4H20  - Alcohols are flammable and burn in air to produce Carbon dioxide and water

.

Reaction of Alcohol With Sodium

  • 2C2H50H + 2Na -> 2C2H5ONa + H- React with Sodium to give hydrogen and alkoxides
1 of 5

Alcohols (Continued)

  • Ethanol is the main alcohol in alcoholic drinks. Its not as toxic as methanol but still damages the liver and brain 

.

.Uses of Alcohol

  • Perfumes
  • To Drink
  • Cleaning Products
  • Fuels

.

Oxidation of Alcohol

The addition of chemical oxidising agents - such as acidified potassium dichromate.

The action of microbes in aerobic conditions (in the presence of oxygen). This happens on a small scale when a bottle of wine is left open and exposed to air. On a commercial scale, it is achieved in a fermenter using acetic acid bacteria

2 of 5

Carboxylic Acids

  • Carboxylic acids have the functional group- COOH(http://qph.is.quoracdn.net/main-qimg-e72c10b957e6f5e66aa6f44fcac436ea?convert_to_webp=true)
  • Weak Acids- Acids which are only partly ionised. (Don't ionise completley) Dont lose all of their H+ ions
  • Strong Acids- Fully ionised and use all/most of their H+ ions

.

First 3 Carboxylic Acids

3 of 5

Carboxylic Acids (Continued)

Carboxylic Acids Reacting with Carbonates

.

Ethanoic Acid + Calcium Carbonate -> Calcium Ethanoate + Water + Carbon Dioxide

  • Carboxylic acids dissolve in water to prodcue acidic solutions. When they dissolve they ionise and release H+ ions which are responsible for making the solution acidic. But, they dont ionise completley (not many H+ Ions are released), they just form weak acidic solutions. This means they have a higher pH (less acidic) than aqueous solutions of strong acids with the same concentration.

What happens to boiling point and density as you go from ethanoic acid to propanoic acid

  • The boiling point increases and the density decreases as the more carbon atoms mean that propanic acids have more carbon atoms than ethanoic acids

Uses of Carboxylic Acids

  • Soaps, detergents, preperation of esters
4 of 5

Esters

Esters have the functional group -COO-

The first Ethyl Etanoate

(http://ibchem.com/IB/ibfiles/organic/org_img/structures/esters/ethyl%20ethanoate.gif)

  • An ester is made by combing an alcohol and a carboxylic acid
  • 3 Uses of Esters- Sweet smelling perfumes, food flavouring  and solvents
  • ethanol + oxygen → ethanoic acid + water

    C2H5OH (l) + O2 (g) → CH3COOH (aq) + H2O (l)

5 of 5

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Chemistry resources:

See all Chemistry resources »See all Functional groups: Alcohols, carboxylic acids and esters resources »