Chemistry- (Organic Chemistry)

  • Created by: Em_New99
  • Created on: 27-05-15 11:28


  • The general formula of an alcohol is CnH2n+1OH 
  • All alchols contain the same '-OH group'. You need to know the first 3


  • Dont write CH40 instead of CH3OH. The second shows that it is in the functional -OH group


Combustion of Alcohol

  • 2CH3OH1 + 3O2 --> 2CO2 + 4H20  - Alcohols are flammable and burn in air to produce Carbon dioxide and water


Reaction of Alcohol With Sodium

  • 2C2H50H + 2Na -> 2C2H5ONa + H- React with Sodium to give hydrogen and alkoxides
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Alcohols (Continued)

  • Ethanol is the main alcohol in alcoholic drinks. Its not as toxic as methanol but still damages the liver and brain 


.Uses of Alcohol

  • Perfumes
  • To Drink
  • Cleaning Products
  • Fuels


Oxidation of Alcohol

The addition of chemical oxidising agents - such as acidified potassium dichromate.

The action of microbes in aerobic conditions (in the presence of oxygen). This happens on a small scale when a bottle of wine is left open and exposed to air. On a commercial scale, it is achieved in a fermenter using acetic acid bacteria

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Carboxylic Acids

  • Carboxylic acids have the functional group- COOH(
  • Weak Acids- Acids which are only partly ionised. (Don't ionise completley) Dont lose all of their H+ ions
  • Strong Acids- Fully ionised and use all/most of their H+ ions


First 3 Carboxylic Acids

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Carboxylic Acids (Continued)

Carboxylic Acids Reacting with Carbonates


Ethanoic Acid + Calcium Carbonate -> Calcium Ethanoate + Water + Carbon Dioxide

  • Carboxylic acids dissolve in water to prodcue acidic solutions. When they dissolve they ionise and release H+ ions which are responsible for making the solution acidic. But, they dont ionise completley (not many H+ Ions are released), they just form weak acidic solutions. This means they have a higher pH (less acidic) than aqueous solutions of strong acids with the same concentration.

What happens to boiling point and density as you go from ethanoic acid to propanoic acid

  • The boiling point increases and the density decreases as the more carbon atoms mean that propanic acids have more carbon atoms than ethanoic acids

Uses of Carboxylic Acids

  • Soaps, detergents, preperation of esters
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Esters have the functional group -COO-

The first Ethyl Etanoate


  • An ester is made by combing an alcohol and a carboxylic acid
  • 3 Uses of Esters- Sweet smelling perfumes, food flavouring  and solvents
  • ethanol + oxygen → ethanoic acid + water

    C2H5OH (l) + O2 (g) → CH3COOH (aq) + H2O (l)

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