C1 Carbon Chemistry

Carbon Chemistry C1 Revision Cards

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C1a

1. Crude oil, coal and gas are fossil fuels which are non-renewable

2.Fractional Distillation

3. LPG, petrol, diesel, paraffin, heating oil, fuel oil and bitumen are all fractions

4. Larger fractions have higher boiling points because there are stronger intermolecular bonds between molecules

5. Extracting crude oil can cause environmental damage

6. Cracking converts long hydrocarbons into shorter hydrocarbons and alkenes

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C1b

1. Toxicity, Energy Value, Availability, Cost, Use, Pollution, Storage (TEACUPS) are factors to consider when choosing a fuel

2. Fuels release heat energy when burnt

3. Complete combustion forms carbon dioxide and water

4. Complete combustion releases more energy than incomplete combustion

5. Incomplete combusion forms carbon monoxide, soot and water

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C1c

1. The atmosphere consists of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% argon and 0.035% carbon dioxide

2. Carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are common pollutanats

3. Catalytic converters are used in car exhausts to rewmove carbo monoixed and nitrogen oxides from the exhaust gases

4. Remember 2CO + 2NO > N₂+ 2CO

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C1d

1. Hydrocarbons are made of carbon and hydrogen only

2. Alkanes and alkenes are separate families of hydrocarbons

3. Alkanes are saturated as they oly have single covalent bonds between carbons

4. Alkenes are unsaturated as they contain at least one double covalent bond in the molecule

5. A double bond is made 2 pairs of electrons

6. Alkenes react with orange bromine water to form a colourless dibromocompound. This is an addition reaction

7. Small alkene molecules react to form long polymer chains

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C1e

1. Carbon atoms in polymer chains are linked by strong covalent bonds

2. Polymer chains are either linked together by weak intermolecular bonds or strong covalent bonds

3. Goretex is a waterproof but brethable fabric

4. Goretex is a laminate of nylon and PTFE layers

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C1f

1. Chemical changes occur when a new substance is made and when the process is irreversible. Cooking is therfore a chemical change.

2. Protein molecules change shape when heated- this is called denaturing

3. Antioxidants, food colours, flavour enhancers and emulsifiers are all food additives

4. Emulsifiers have a hydrophobic tail (doesnt like water) and a hydrophilic head (likes water)

5. Baking powder contains sodium hydrogencarbonate which decomposes on heatign to form carbon dioxide- this process is called thermal decomposition

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C1g

1. Esters can be used as perfumes that can be made synthetically from alcohols and organic acids

2. Esters are often used as solvents

3. Nail varnish remover is a solvent

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C1h

1. Paints contain a pigment, a binder and a solvent

2. Paint is a colloid

3. Thermochromic paints change colour when heated

4. Phosphorescent pigments can glow in the dark

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