Britain 1489 - 1499

In depth study into Britain 1483-1529.

This section is on

  • Threats to the throne
  • Pretenders
  • Rebellions
  • Perkin Warbeck
  • The Yorkshire Rebellion
  • The Cornish Rebellion

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Rebellion

The Yorkshire Rebellion

  • The rebellion broke out in Yorkshire and Northumberland in April 1489
  • It was due to a subsidy being introduced here to help fund the war against France
  • The King put the Earl of Northumberland in charge of collecting the subsidy
  • However, the Earl was murdered by the rebels
  • Henry VII wanted to reassert royal authority and since the Earl of Northumberland had represented royal authority Henry VII had to make a strong statement about his murder.
  • For this reason, Henry VII had the rebel leader, John a Chambre, charged with treason and hung for murdering the Earl
  • The rebels found a new leader, John Egremount, who was unreliable and fled to Burgundy
  • However unsuccessful the revolt was, Henry VII never attempted to raise tax in this area again
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Pretender

Perkin Warbeck

  • Perkin Warbeck was a pretender to the throne
  • His threat lasted eight years from 1491 - 1499
  • He claimed to be one of the Prince's in the Tower, Richard Duke of York
  • He started his pretence in Cork, Ireland
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Pretender

Perkin Warbeck in France

  • Henry VII sent an army to meet him but Warbeck had not gained enough support in Ireland and had to flee to France
  • Charles VIII gave his support to the pretender since France was at war with Tudor England
  • Henry VII retaliated by negotiating the Treat of Etaples
  • When Charles VII declared war on Italy a few years later, he withdrew all support for Warbeck
  • Warbeck then had to flee again to Burgundy where he gained support from
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Pretender

Perkin Warbeck in Burgundy

  • Margaret of Burgundy and other dissatisfied Yorkist nobles gave their support to Warbeck
  • Henry VII then placed the Trade Embargo on Burgundy meaning English merchants could not trade with Burgundy
  • Burgundy was the main source of trade with Britain and the economic state of the two countries depended on each others trade so the Trade Embargo had disastrous affects
  • Eventually Burgundy stopped their support for the pretender and Henry VII reversed the Embargo
  • Warbeck was allowed to remain in Burgundy but was forced to seek support elsewhere
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Pretender

Perkin Warbeck and the Holy Roman Emperor

  • The HRE was anti-French and was therefore angered by the new Anglo-French coalition established in the Treaty of Etaples
  • For that reason the HRE gave his support to Warbeck
  • Although, fortunatley for Henry VII, the HRE lacked military resources to provide Warbeck with
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Pretender

Perkin Warbeck's first invasion

  • The first Warbeck invasion began in Kent 1495
  • Henry had been pre-warned about this invasion and was prepared
  • Sir William Stanley had made contact with Warbeck before this first invasion and Henry VII charged him with treason
  • Perkin Warbeck himself never left the ship and set sail for Ireland before he could be defeated by Tudor's forces fully
  • He gained no support however in Ireland and so fled again to Scotland
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Pretender

Perkin Warbeck in Scotland

  • James IV of Scotland welcomed Perkin Warbeck and provided him with
    - Shelter
    - A pension
    - A royal wife (Margaret, cousin of James IV)
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Pretender

Perkin Warbeck's second invasion

  • Warbeck invaded England again in 1496
  • This time Warbeck was accompanied by a Scottish army
  • When he gained no support in England he fled back to Scotland and his planned rebellion failed
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Pretender

Perkin Warbeck in Scotland

  • When Warbeck returned to Scotland, Henry VII began talks with King of Scotland, James VI
  • They negotiated and arranged the marriage between James IV and Henry's daughter Princess Margaret in return for not supporting Warbeck
  • Warbeck then had to flee again, to Ireland
  • However, the Earl of Kildare proved loyal to Henry and Warbeck fled again
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Rebellion

Perkin Warbeck's third Invasion

  • For Warbeck's last invasion, he tried to exploit the Cornish rebellion in 1497
  • The Cornish were rebelling peacefully against a tax rise for warfare when Warbeck hijacked it and turned the rebels violent
  • When Cornish rebels joined Warbeck, the rebellion became a disaster
  • It became:
    - Disorganised
    - Poorly led
    - Underequipt
    - And showed Warbeck's inadequacies as a leader
  • Henry VII had been warned about this invasion and had sent nobles to deal with the rebels at Exeter
  • Warbeck fled to sancutary at first
  • He then later gave himself up and confessed
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Pretender

Henry VII and Perkin Warbeck

  • Henry VII was very lenient towards Warbeck
  • Warbeck was allowed to remain at court with his wife
  • This was until he tried to escape
  • Henry VII then confined him to the Tower of London
  • There Warbeck conspired with Richard III's son, Edward of Warwick
  • The two plotted to escape
  • When Henry VII heard of this:
    - Warwick was beheaded
    - Warbeck was hung in 1499
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Pretender

Why did Perkin Warbeck's threat last for eight years?

  • He bore a striking resemblance to Edward IV
  • He was well educated
  • He was experienced
  • His teachers were very able
  • Margaret of Burgundy (Edward IV's sister) had trained Warbeck well
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Rebellion

What did Henry VII learn from the Cornish and Yorkshire rebellions?

  • He had to avoid expensive wars
    - Foreign wars = raised taxes
    - Raised taxes = Rebellion
    - Rebellion = Threat to dynasty = Money to suppress
  • And
    - Foreign wars = trade stopped
    - Stopped Trade = Unemployment
    - Unemployment = rebellion/economic crisis
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