Bonding- C2

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  • Created by: Lina
  • Created on: 09-04-14 08:38


  • Different atomic forms of the same element 
  • The same number of protons
  • Different number of neutrons
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Atoms of 2 or more elements chemically combined together

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Ionic compounds

  • Giant ionic lattices
  • Ions form a closely packed regular lattice arrangement
  • Strong electrostatic forces of attraction between the oppositely charged ions in all directions
  • High melting+ boiling points
  • Strong attraction between the ions
  • Takes a large amount of energy to overcome this attraction
  • When ionic compounds melt, the ions are free to move+ carry electric current
  • Ionic compounds dissolve easily in water
  • Ions separate+ are free to move in the solution-> carry the current 
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  • Ions have the electronic structure of a noble gas
  • The overall charge of any compound is 0
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Covalent Bonding

  • Having a full outer shell gives atoms an electronic structre of a noble gas
  • Covalent bond is shown by a line
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Simple molecular substances

  • Strong covalent bonds between atoms
  • Small molecules
  • Weak intermolecular forces of attraction
  • Low m.p.+ b.p.
  • Molecules are easily parted from each other
  • Intermolecular forces get broken when substances change state
  • Most of these substances are gases/ liquis at room t, but can be solids
  • Don't conduct electricity- no ions-> no electrical charge
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Giant Covalent Structures

  • Macromolecules
  • All the atoms bonded to each other by strong covalent bonds
  • High m.p.+ b.p.
  • Don't conduct electricity


  • Each carbon atom forms 4 covalent bonds
  • Rigid giant covalent structure


  • Each carbon atom forms 3 covalent bonds
  • Layers slide over each other
  • Soft+ slippery
  • The layers are held together so loosely-> can be rubbed off due to weak intermolecular forces between the layers
  • Good conductor of heat+ electricity
  • Each carbon atom has a delocalised electron
  • Free electrons conduct heat+ electricity
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Metallic bonding

  • Giant structure
  • Free delocalised electrons come from the outer shell of every metal atom in the structure
  • These electrons move through the whole structure-> good conductors of heat+ electricity
  • Electrons hold the atoms together in a regular structure
  • Strong forces of electrostatic attraction between the positive metal ions+ the negative electrons
  • Electrons allow the layers of atoms to slide over each other, allowing metals to be bent+ shaped
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  • Alloys are harder than pure metals
  • They have different elements with different sized atoms
  • New metal atoms distort the layers of metal atoms-> more difficult for them to slide over each other
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