• Created by: Tom466
  • Created on: 14-05-22 14:28

Ionic Bonding

  • When an electron moves from one atom to another  to complete an outer shell.
  • This makes 2 ions 1 positive and 1 negative.
  • Meaning they have an electrostatic force of attraction which is very strong.
  • Normally electrons move from a metal to a non metal during ionic bonding.
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Ionic Compounds

  • Ionic bonds form regular lattice structures.
  • They have very high melting and boiling points.
  • Can conduct electricity when liquid or in solution:
    • Electricity is the movement of charged particles (electrons or ions).
    • So when they are in their lattice structure everything is fixed no movement of chaged particles.
    • But when they're in solution or melted the ions can move about so charged particles are moving so electricity can flow.
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Covalent Bonding

  • The sharing of electrons between atoms so they both have full outer shells.
  • Covalent bonds are strong but intermolecuar forces aren't.
  • As molecules get bigger the intermolecular forces get stronger.
  • Can't conduct electricity because there are no free electrons or ions that can move.
  • Giant covalent structures:
    • Very strong
    • High melting points and boiling points
    • Don't conduct electricity
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Allotropes of Carbon

  • Allotropes are different structural forms of the same element in the same state.
  • Diamond:
    • Giant covalent structure (strong)
    • Each carbon atom has 4 bonds, forms regular 3d pattern
    • Very stong high melting point and boiling point
    • Can't conduct electricity, no free electrons or ions
  • Graphite
    • Each carbon atom has 3 bonds
    • Atoms aranged into hexagons which make sheets of graphene
    • Layers held together weakly makes it soft and low friction
    • High melting point and boiling point
    • 1 free delocalised electron per atom, so electricity can be conducted
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Metallic Bonding

  • Metals are a giant structure of atoms arranged in a particular pattern.
  • The atoms loose their outer shell electrons and become positive ions.
  • The former outer shell electrons are now delocalised electrons which are shared between metal atoms.
  • Strong electrostatic attaraction between the electrons and atoms holds everything togeter in a regular structure.
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Metal Properties

  • Good conductors of heat and electricity because the loose electrons can carry charges and heat throughout the structure.
  • Malleable:
    • Can be bent or hammered into shapes
    • The regualar structure of metals means that layers can slide over each other to form a new shape
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  • 2 or more elements being mixed either 2 matals or 1 metal and 1 non-metal.
  • Usually with different sized atoms.
  • Therefore, the regular structure is disrupted so there are no layers that can slide over each other.
  • So, alloys are normaly stonger than metals.
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