Immunity that is acquired by actibation of immune system
In mitosis, the stage when the newly seperate chrimatids are
pulled towards opposite poles of the nuclear spindle.
Describes a result/ data point that does not appear to fit the
pattern of the other results. It may be assumed to be
anomalous if the experimenter has made an error if the
apparatus used is not suitable fot the measurements being
Also called selective breeding - the process of improving a
variety of crop plant or domesticated animals by breeding
selected individuals with desire characteristics.
The producion of gentically identical new organisms by a
single "parent" organism.
The muscle found in the heart. It has its own intrinsic
heartbeat (it is myogenic)
A protein found in membranes, which is capable of carrying
a specific molecule or ion through the membrane by actibe
The region of a chromosome where two sister chromatids are
joined together, and where the spindle fibre attaches during
An organelle found in plants which contains chorophyll and is
resposible for photosynthetic activity in the plant.
Short extensions of eukaryotic cells, typically 2-10 um long
and 0.03 um in diameter. They may be used for locomotion
or to move fluids or mucus over a surface, for example in the
mammalian respiratory tract.
Epithelial cells that have cilla on their cell surface.
To make narrow. For example vaso-constriction is the
narrowing of blood vessels.
The network of protein fibres and micro-tubules found
within the cell that gives structure to the cell and
is responsible for the movement of many materials within it.
The gradient in molecular concentration (the difference in
concentration) that allows diffusion to occur.
Describes the structure of DNA, a twisted helix of two strand
with bases joining the strands.
Cells that have a nucleus inside a nuclear envelope, and other
A chain of carbon atoms bonded together with hydrogen
atoms bonded onto the carbons.
Initial Reaction Rate
Rate of reaction at the beginning of the reaction.
Folds in the membrane of a cell that increases its surface
The monomer of nucleic acids consisting of a phosphate, a
sugar and organic base.
The structure inside a cell. Each organelle has a specific
Nitrogenous base in nucleic acid, adenine, thymine, uracil,
A molecule consisting of a small number of amino acids
bonded together by (covalent) peptide bonds.
The covalent bond formed when amino acids are joined
together in condensation reactions.
Plasma membrane/ Cell Surface Membrane
The membrane that surrounds every cell, forming the
selective permeable boundary between the cell and
its environment. It is made up of a double layer oh
phospholipids with embedded proteins.
Proteins made in the liver that are found in blood plasma.
They hold fluid in vessels by osmosis and include antibodies
and blood clotting proteins.
Detachment of the plasma membrane from the cell wall as
the cytoplasm shrinks when water is lost from a plant cell.
Adenine and guanine - nitrogenous bases consisting of a
single ring structure.
Thymine, cytosine and uracil - nitrogenous bases consisting
of a double ring structure.
Single Circulatory System
A circulation in which blood flows through the heart once
during each circulation of the body
A polysaccharides found in plant cells. It is formed from
the covalent bonding together of many glucose molecules.
The 'skin' on the surface of water formed as a result of a
hydrogen bonding in water molecules pulling
the surface molecules downwards.
Flattened membrane sacs found in chloroplast, which hold
the pigments used in photosynthesis and are the site of the
light reactions of photosynthesis. A sack of thlylakoid form a
A nitrogen-containing organic base found in RNA. In DNA is
is replaced by Thymine.
An antigenic substance prepared from the causative agent of
a disease or a synthetic substitute, used to provide immunity
against one or several diseases.