Biology Holiday Homework Part 3

Familiarize yourself with these term and definitions by reading them carefully 

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Active Immunity

Immunity that is acquired by actibation of immune system 

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In mitosis, the stage when the newly seperate chrimatids are

pulled towards opposite poles of the nuclear spindle. 

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Describes a result/ data point that does not appear to fit the

pattern of the other results. It may be assumed to be

anomalous if the experimenter has made an error if the

apparatus used is not suitable fot the measurements being


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Artificial Selection

Also called selective breeding - the process of improving a

variety of crop plant or domesticated animals by breeding

selected individuals with desire characteristics

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Asexual Reproduction

The producion of gentically identical new organisms by a

single "parent" organism.

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Cardiac Muscle

The muscle found in the heart. It has its own intrinsic

heartbeat (it is myogenic)

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Carrier Protein

A protein found in membranes, which is capable of carrying

a specific molecule or ion through the membrane by actibe


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The region of a chromosome where two sister chromatids are

joined together, and where the spindle fibre attaches during

cell divison. 

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An organelle found in plants which contains chorophyll and is

resposible for photosynthetic activity in the plant.

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Short extensions of eukaryotic cells, typically 2-10 um long

and 0.03 um in diameter. They may be used for locomotion

or to move fluids or mucus over a surface, for example in the

mammalian respiratory tract. 

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Ciliated Epithelium

Epithelial cells that have cilla on their cell surface. 

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To make narrow. For example vaso-constriction is the

narrowing of blood vessels.

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The network of protein fibres and micro-tubules found

within the cell that gives structure to the cell and

is responsible for the movement of many materials within it. 

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Diffusion Gradient

The gradient in molecular concentration (the difference in

concentration) that allows diffusion to occur.

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Double Helix

Describes the structure of DNA, a twisted helix of two strand

with bases joining the strands.

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Eukaryotic Cell

Cells that have a nucleus inside a nuclear envelope, and other

membrane-bound organelles.

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Hydrocarbon Chain

A chain of carbon atoms bonded together with hydrogen

atoms bonded onto the carbons.

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Initial Reaction Rate

Rate of reaction at the beginning of the reaction.

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Folds in the membrane of a cell that increases its surface


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The monomer of nucleic acids consisting of a phosphate, a

sugar and organic base.

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The structure inside a cell. Each organelle has a specific


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Organic Base

Nitrogenous base in nucleic acid, adenine, thymine, uracil,

cytosine, guanine.

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A molecule consisting of a small number of amino acids

bonded together by (covalent) peptide bonds.

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Peptide Bond

The covalent bond formed when amino acids are joined

together in condensation reactions. 

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Plasma membrane/ Cell Surface Membrane

The membrane that surrounds every cell, forming the

selective permeable boundary between the cell and

its environment. It is made up of a double layer oh

phospholipids with embedded proteins.

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Plasma Proteins

Proteins made in the liver that are found in blood plasma.

They hold fluid in vessels by osmosis and include antibodies

and blood clotting proteins.

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Detachment of the plasma membrane from the cell wall as

the cytoplasm shrinks when water is lost from a plant cell.

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Adenine and guanine - nitrogenous bases consisting of a

single ring structure. 

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Thymine, cytosine and uracil - nitrogenous bases consisting

of a double ring structure. 

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Single Circulatory System

A circulation in which blood flows through the heart once

during each  circulation of the body 

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A polysaccharides found in plant cells. It is formed from

the covalent bonding together of many glucose molecules.

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Surface Tension

The 'skin' on the surface of water formed as a result of a

hydrogen bonding in water molecules pulling

the surface molecules downwards.

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Flattened membrane sacs found in chloroplast, which hold

the pigments used in photosynthesis and are the site of the

light reactions of photosynthesis. A sack of thlylakoid form a


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A nitrogen-containing organic base found in RNA. In DNA is

is replaced by Thymine.

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An antigenic substance prepared from the causative agent of

a disease or a synthetic substitute, used to provide immunity

against one or several diseases.

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