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  • Created by: Louise
  • Created on: 30-03-13 11:23

Drugs #1

  • Drugs are substances that change chemical reactions in the body. Medical drugs relieve disease and illness, and are extensively tested before being used.Recreational drugs such as alcohol and tobacco are taken by people because they like the effects they have on their bodies, but they are addictive.

 

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Drugs #2

 

A Drug Trial , on a potential new medicine , cotains three stages :

  • The drug is tested in a laboratory on uman cells or tissues to find out if it is toxic .It may be tested on live animals .
  • Human voluntrees are given diffrent doses , to find out what is the highest does that can be taken safely .Any side effect are recorded .
  • In Clinical trials , the drug is tested on it target illness .It is given to people who have the illness , to see if it makes them better .Some patients are given placebos which do not contain the drug.Neither the patient nor their docotr know whether they have a placeboo or the real drug (a double blind trial ).This helps determine whether a drug really works .
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Drugs #3

Thalidomide

In the 1960 , Many pregnant women were prescribed the drug thaildimide to treat morning sickness in pregnancy .The drug had ben thorughly trialled as a sleeping pill , no one had tested it on pregent  women.Women who took thaidomide in the early stages of pregeancy often gave birth to malformed babies .

  • Missing Limbs
  •   Missing ears or defeness 
  •  Missing/Extra toes or fingers
  •  Lost of sight
  • Improper heart , kidney and other internal organs and genitalia or **** 
  • Cleft palate
  • Flattering of the bridge of the nose .

Thalidomide was banned worldwide, but now is being used to treat serious dieaseas like as leprosy .

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Drugs #4

       Recreational drugs are taken by people to alter their mood.

  • alcohol and tobacco are legal recreational drugs
  • heroin and cocaine are illegal recreational drugs

Many drugs alter the chemical processes in the body in such a way that the person taking them becomes addicted to them. They feel they have to take the drugs, and they suffer unpleasant withdrawal symptoms if they stop taking them                                                                                                 Impact of drugs in society And Health .       All drugs have the potential to damage our health, because they change chemical processes in the body. Addictive recreational drugs damage our health indirectly by reducing the amount of money available to buy food, and by placing users in dangerous situations. Injecting any drug with a needle and syringe that someone else has used may lead to a number of diseases from infected blood, including HIV and hepatitis. Users of illegal drugs may turn to crime to pay for their habit, and this affects the lives of other people.

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Drugs #5

  • Cannabis
  • Cannabis is a class C Drug , Class C drug you can get up to 14 year in Prison for possesion or dealing .
  • Cannbis is a Recreational drug cannabis is considered a gateway drug to higher class (B and A ) Like heroin .
  • Cannabis are from central asia ans south asia frist then spread worldwide.
  • The psychoactive product consists of dried flowers of the cannabis plants selectively bred to produce high leves of THC and other psychoactive chemicals .
  • cannabis can make you feel very chilled out, happy and relaxed. also make you hallucinate, meaning that it can alter your senses, so that you might see, hear or feel things in a different way to normal.
  •  Cannabis has some very real, harmful effects on your mind and body, as well as creating longer-term problems:
  • Cannabis can make you feel very anxious and even paranoid.
  •  Using it has also been linked, to serious, long-term mental health problems.It also extermaly bad for your lungs  just like tobacco, smoking cannabis has been linked to lung diseases like tuberculosis and lung cancer.
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Drugs #6

Drugs in sport

Professional sports people are banned from taking certain performance enhacing drugs beacause they could give them an advantage.Theses Drugs can often cause long lasting damage or even death .

Performance-enhancing drugs include:

  • Anabolic Steroids
  • Beta Blockers
  • Diuretics 
  • Narcotic Analgesics
  • Stimulants
  • Peptide hormones including EPO(erythropoietin)
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Drugs #7

Anabolic steroids are types of drugs that mimic the male sex hormone testosterone and promote bone and muscle growth. It is mostly use by the athletes to enhance their performance in sport. Anabolic steroids increases muscle mass and develop bone growth, which means it increases strength this then allows athlete to train harder and recover quicker.

Steroids increase aggression, this is why some people take it. It's usually used to prevent muscle wastage. 

  • The side effects of anabolic steroids include
  • increased risk of heart attack and strokes
  • high blood pressure
  •  liver disease
  • increased risk of muscle injury
  • infertility in women death
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Drugs #8

Beta blockers are drugs that are used to control the heart rate and having a calming and relaxing effect.

These drugs are commonly used by people who have heart problems. Stress levels and anxiety is reduced when you take this type of drugs. However, beta blockers can reduce a fit person's heart rate to a very dangerous level.

  • The side effects of beta blockers include:
  • nausea and diarrhoea
  •  tiredness
  • depression
  •  insomnia and nightmares
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Drugs #9

Diuretics are drugs that elevate the rate of urine production and to increase kidney function. These helps performers to lose weight for example, boxers. 

  • The side effects of diuretics include:
  • dehydration,
  • which can cause dizziness, muscle cramps, nausea and headaches
  • kidney problems
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Drugs #10

Narcotics/analgesics are drugs that are used to reduce pain. Drugs that are in this category are heroin, methadone, pethidine and morphine. These drugs act by depressing the nervous system and gives relief from injuries. 

  • The side effects of narcotics/analgesics include:
  • loss of concentration
  • loss of balance
  • loss of coordination
  • hallucinations
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Drugs #11

Stimulants drugs that have an effect on the central nervous system, such as increased mental and/or physical alertness. Stimulant drugs are the second most used in sport. This group of drugs includes amphetamines ephedrine, nicotine, caffeine and cocaine. Stimulants allow people to think more quickly by stimulating the central nervous system.

  • The side effects of stimulants include:
  •   insomnia
  • irritability
  • irregular heart beat
  • increased heart rate
  • high blood pressure
  • addiction
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Drugs #12

Peptide hormones including EPO(erythropoietin are drugs that cause other hormones to be produced.

 These types of drugs are quite similar to anabolic steroids, it increases muscle growth and to recover from injuries. Peptide hormones including EPO increases the red blood cells which allows the body to carry more oxygen and get rid of waste products and lactic acids.

  • The side effects of Peptide hormones including EPO(erythropoietin) include:
  • thickens the blood
  • dehydration
  • can lead to heart attack or stroke
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Drugs #13

Smoking has been banned in public places and the legal age for buying tobacco is 18. Coronary heart disease (not cancer) is the commonest cause of death related to smoking. Smoking damages the cardiovascular system and causes high blood pressure.

Nicotine the drug contained in cigarettes, is a stimulant. It's also an addictive drug, the more the people smoke the harder they find it to stop.

Alcohol

 is a depressant and it slows down your reaction time. Alcohol cause extra urine to be produced which increases the risk of dehydration and it also damages your liver, cirrhosis.

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Drugs #14

  • Statins are drug that help people to resuce their blood cholesterol level and therefore greatly reduce their risk of getting hear diease

 

  • When statins were frist introduced , trials had shown almost no side affect .

 

  • However , since then, side effects such as painful muscles have been discovered .
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Cells #1

both cells have a membrane on the outside, and cytoplasm and a nucleus inside. In the plant only are the cell wall, vacuole, and chloroplast.  (http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/images/aqaaddsci_06.gif)

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Cells #2

partfunction nucleus                 contains genetic material, which controls the activities of the cell cytoplasm most chemical processes take place here, controlled by enzymes cell membrane   controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell mitochondria most energy is released by respiration here ribosomes protein synthesis happens here

Plant cells also have extra parts:

Extra parts of plant cells

cell wall strengthens the cell chloroplasts contain chlorophyll, which absorbs light energy for photosynthesis permanent vacuole              filled with cell sap to help keep the cell turgid

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Cells #3

Bacteria and yeast

Anaerobic respiration takes place in yeast and some bacteria, producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. They have been used in the making of many foods such as bread, yoghurt and vinegar. You must know the structure and functions of a bacterial cell and yeast cell.

Diagram of bacterial cell

Diagram of bacterial cell (http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/images/add_21c_bio_diag_bacterial_cell.jpg)                      Diagram of yeast cell (http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/images/add_21c_bio_diag_yeast_cell.jpg)Diagram of yeast cell

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Cells #4

Structure and function of a bacterial cell

StructureFunction Molecule of circular DNA Contains genetic code for enzymes involved in respiration Cell membrane Allows gases and water to pass in and out of the cell while controlling the passage of other chemicals Cell wall Provide rigidity to maintain cell shape Cytoplasm Enzymes are made and reactions involved in respiration occur here

Structure and function of a yeast cell

StructureFunction Nucleus Contains genetic code for enzymes involved in respiration Cell membrane Allows gases and water to pass in and out of the cell while controlling the passage of other chemicals Cell wall Provide rigidity to maintain cell shape Cytoplasm Enzymes are made and reactions involved in respiration occur here Mitochondria Contains enzymes for the reactions in aerobic respiration

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Cells#5

Leaf Cell- Specialised Cell

Cell

Function

Adaption

cross section through a leaf cell (http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/images/aqaaddsci_07.gif)

Absorbs light energy    for photosynthesis Packed with chloroplasts. Regular shaped, closely packed cells form a continuous layer for efficient absorption of sunlight.

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Cells#5

Leaf Cell- Specialised Cell

Cell

Function

Adaption

cross section through a leaf cell (http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/images/aqaaddsci_07.gif)

Absorbs light energy    for photosynthesis Packed with chloroplasts. Regular shaped, closely packed cells form a continuous layer for efficient absorption of sunlight.

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Cells #6

Root hair Cell -Specialised Cell

root hair cell - has a head and tail (http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/images/aqaaddsci_08.gif) Absorbs water and mineral ions from the soil Long 'finger-like' process with very thin wall, which gives a large surface area.

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Cells #7

Sperm cells -Specialised cells

sperm cell - has a head and tail (http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/images/aqaaddsci_09.gif) Fertilises an egg cell -  female gamete The head contains genetic information and an enzyme to help penetrate the egg cell membrane. The middle section is packed with mitochondria for energy. The tail moves the sperm to the egg.

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Cells #8

Red Blood Cell - Specialised Cells red blood cells (http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/images/aqaaddsci_10.gif) Contain haemoglobin to carry oxygen to the cells. Thin outer membrane to let oxygen diffuse through easily. Shape increases the surface area to allow more oxygen to be absorbed efficiently. No nucleus, so the whole cell is full of haemoglobin.

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Diffusion #1

Cell and Diffusion

  • Diffusion is the spreading of the the particles of a gas or of any substance in solution , resulting in a net movement from a region where they are of a higher concentration ,into a region where they are in a lower concentration .
  • Most cells need oxygen so that they can respire .Oxygen diffuses into the cells from a higher concentration outside to a lower concentration inside.
  • The concentration of oxygen inside a cell is kept low beacuse the cell keeps on using it up.

REMEMBER        

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

thw speed a diffusion can be increased by increasing the difference in concentration (the concentration gradient)and increasing the temperature.(the faster that particels move around .The faster they will diffuse.)

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Animal Tissues ,Organs and Systems #1

Structure and function of tissues

  • The cell adpated the tissue for particular roles .
  • eg - Muscular tissues have adpated fto produce movement .
  • Glandular tissue has adpated it cells which release substances such as hormones or enzymes.
  • Epithelial tissue - to cover the inner and outer surfaces of the stomach

cells → tissues → organ (the stomach) → organ system (the digestive system)

  tissue is a group of specialised cells that have a similar structure and function.

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Animal Tissues ,Organs and Systems #2

  • Multicelluar organisms have a varied cells which are specialised for a particular function an advantage over the singel celled organisms.
  • Some reactions are easier for single celled organisms , eg oxygen can be diffused easier into a single cell .
  • Multicelluar organisms need a tranport system to bring oxygen to all the cells .They also have specialised tissues that have adapted to allow substance to move in and out the body.
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Animal Tissues ,Organs and Systems #3

  • Heart- oxides your whole body , it also oxgynates the blood .
  • oarives/Testes-produce the male and female eggs for repduction.
  • Eyes-Enbale you to see object far and near and aslo colour .
  • Ears-The ears are necessary for hearing and for the process of converting sound into electrochemical information that the brain can use to code the information
  • Nose-The nose accommodates the sense of smell, and the inhilation of air
  • Brain-Is the centre nevers system , tells the rest of your body what to do .
  • Nerves-Carry messages or impules to and from the CNS Central nervous system
  • Liver-Creates ,realses and metbolise bile .Used to digested Lipid (Fat)
  • Pancreas-Realses Digestive enzymes .
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Animal Tissues ,Organs and Systems #4

  • Lungs-Are needed for respration .

 

  • Stomach - digest phyical and chemial products , when it tenese and relex it is phyicals digesting food .protien in the only thing digested their fully .Hydrocrical acid also helps break down the food.

 

  • kindey-excretes harmful metabolic waste products ,metabolites hormones & hemoglobin breakdown , drugs, pesticides, food additives and other toxic substances from the body.

 

  • Intestines-(small) nutrients absorbed into the blood.(large) left overs - bile acids & undigested contents are collected and the water returned into body. Bacterial digestion also occurs
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Animal Tissues ,Organs and Systems #5

  • CIRCULATORY (CARDIOVASCULAR) SYSTEM:
  • ·        PURPOSE:
  • o       transport substances throughout the body
  • §        nutrients such as glucose from DIGESTIVE SYSTEM transported to cells
  • §        oxygen from RESPIRATORY SYSTEM to cells
  • §        carbon dioxide (a waste gas) from cells to RESPIRATORY SYSTEM for removal
  • §        hormones from the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
  • §        immune cells from the IMMUNE SYSTEM
  • §        proteins secreted by cells
  • INCULDES
  • Heart , Blood vessesl .
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Animal Tissues ,Organs and Systems #6

  • RESPIRATORY SYSTEM:
  • ·        PURPOSE:
  • o       allows gas exchange between circulatory system and external environment
  • §        gases move by simple diffusion
  • ·        oxygen moves into the blood of the circulatory system
  • ·        carbon dioxide moves out of the blood of the circulatory system
  • o       NOTE: this is the only system that allows gas exchange between the blood and the external environment
  • ·        KEY STRUCTURES:
  • o       lungs
  • o       bronchi
  • o       bronchioles
  • o       alveoli
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Animal Tissues ,Organs and Systems #7

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM:

·        PURPOSE:

o       breaks apart large, complex molecules found in food until they are small enough to be absorbed into the circulatory system for transport to cells;

§        nutrients absorbed are primarily for energy and used in building other molecules needed by the organism

  • ·        KEY STRUCTURES:
  • o       esophagus
  • o       stomach
  • o       small intestine
  • o       large intestine
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Animal Tissues ,Organs and Systems #8

URINARY & EXCRETORY SYSTEM:

·        PURPOSE:

o       waste removal (except for gases, which are removed by the respiratory system)

·        KEY STRUCTURES:

o       URINARY SYSTEM:

§        kidneys

§        urinary bladder

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Animal Tissues ,Organs and Systems #9

  • NERVOUS SYSTEM:
  • ·        PURPOSE:
  • o       transmitting nerve impulses to coordinate an organism’s movements; storing information; controlling perception
  • ·        KEY STRUCTURES:
  • o       NEURONS: nerve cells; typically organized into large, interconnected networks to send nerve impulses throughout the body
  • §        AXON: portion of a neuron capable of transmitting nerve impulses to other neurons
  • §        DENDRITE: portion of neuron that receives nerve impulses from other neurons
  • o       brain
  • o       spinal cord
  • o       sensory organs
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Animal Tissues ,Organs and Systems #10

  • MUSCULAR SYSTEM:
  • ·        PURPOSE:
  • o       stimulated by nervous system to cause movements (often by pulling on the structures of the skeletal system)
  • §        CONTRACTIONS: shortening of muscle that cause movements; stimulated by nerves of the nervous system
  • ·        KEY STRUCTURES:
  • o       muscles made of contractile proteins (contractile fibers) organized into groups and often attached to bones of the skeletal system by tendons
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Animal Tissues ,Organs and Systems #11

  • REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM:
  • ·        PURPOSE:
  • o       allows production of offspring essential to the sustainability of a species from generation to generation
  • o       provides a means by which genetic information can be passed from parents to offspring
  • ·        KEY STRUCTURES:
  • o       gonads
  • o       gametes
  • o       zygote
  • o       ANGIOSPERMS: “flowering plants” reproduce sexually when a pollen grain containing a sperm cell fuses (merges) with a egg cell
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The Nervous System #1

  • The Nervous system

 

  • CNS - Central nervous system
  • Nerves carry messages one impules and from the CNS .Each nerve is a bundle of Specialised neurones
  • The CNS (Central nervous system ) is The Spinal cord and brain .
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The Nervous System #2

Receptor Cells

Each type detects a diffrent changr ir sitmulus.They start the messages or impules that travel along the nerves.Receptors are often grouped together in sense organs.

Eyes           Light                            Light receptor

Ear            Sound                          Sound receptor

Tongue   Chemcial                       Chemical receptor

 Nose      Chemical                       Chemical receptor   

Inherear   Position/Balance            Position receptor

Skin           Touch, Pressure ,Pain , Tempeture

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The Nervous System #3

Receptor

Sensory neuron

CNS Coordiantor

Motor Neuron

Effector

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The Nervous System #4

(http://static.enotes.com/images/nursing/genh_03_img0308.jpg)

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The Nervous System #5

The message may be passed straight to a motor neurone via a relay neurone. This is very quick and is called a reflex action.

The message can be sent to the higher centres of the brain and the organism might decide to make a response. This is called a voluntary action.

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The Nervous System #6

A reflex action

All reflexes are:

  •   Fast
  •   Do not need conscious thought
  •   Protect the body. 

  Examples of reflexes include the knee jerk, pupil reflex, accommodation, ducking and withdrawing the hand from a hot object. 

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The Nervous System Reflex Diagram #7

Reflex action (http://revisionworld.co.uk/files/16.gif)

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The Nervous System #8

Reflex Arc

A reflex arc is the subconscious movement from a stimulus that can cause harm e.g. a bee sting

The reflex arc does not require a conscious action, which might be too slow

So… the brain is bypassed

Stimulus > receptor > effector > response

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The Nervous System #9

A voluntary action

Voluntary actions need a conscious decision in order to take place. They therefore always involve the brain.  The cerebral hemisphere is the area of the brain where the decisions are made. Nerve impulses from here are sent down the spinal cord to effectors via motor neurones

Stimulus -> Sense organ -> Sensory nerve cell ->Brain -> Motor Cell -> Effector -> Response

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Control In Human Body #1

Hormones is a chemical substance that regulates processes in the body.Hormones are released by glands and travel though bloodsteam to their target organs.The internal conditons of the body are controlled by the nervous system and hormones .The maintenance of the internal conditons is called homeostasis.

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Control In Human Body #2

  • Water content in the body

    Water in the body has to be controlled to protect cells from either too much water entering or too much water leaving them. Water content is controlled by water loss from:

    • the lungs - when we exhale
    • the skin - through sweating
    • passing urine - produced by the kidneys.
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Control In Human Body #3

Ion (salts) content of the body

Ion (salts) levels are controlled to protect cells from too much water entering or leaving them. Ion content is controlled by the loss of ions from:

  • the skin - through sweating
  • passing urine - produced by the kidneys.
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Control In Human Body #4

Temperature of the body

This is controlled to maintain the temperature at which enzymes work best. Body temperature is controlled by sweating, shivering, and controlling blood flow to the skin.

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Control In Human Body #5

Blood sugar levels

This is controlled to provide cells with a constant supply of energy. Blood sugar level is controlled by the release and storage of glucose controlled by insulin.

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Hormones In Fertility #1

FSH -Follide Stimulating hormone

The hormone FSH is released  by the brain (pituitary gland) .FSH stimulates  the oviavies to make oestrogen .

FSH makes two things happen:

  • it causes an egg to mature in an ovary
  • it stimulates the ovaries to release the hormone oestrogen
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Hormones In Fertility #2

Oestrogen

The hormone oestrogen is secreted by the ovaries.It Starts Thicking lineing  and is used as a contraceptive hormone and in contraceptive pills .

Oestrogen makes two things happen:

  • it stops FSH being produced - so that only one egg matures in a cycle
  • it stimulates the pituitary gland to release the hormone LH
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Hormones In Fertility #3

LH And Progesterone

 

 

The hormone LH causes the mature egg to be released from the ovary.LH is released on Day 14. It higest at Day 14 , it released from the brain (pituitary gland).

 Progesterone is another hormone secreted by ovaries: it maintains the lining of the uterus and stays high during pregnancy.

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Hormones In Fertility #4

Day 1 - 4: menstruation, 4 - 14: lining of uterus builds up, 14 - 28: lining maintained, after day 28: lining breaks down. Egg is released at day 14, then progesterone levels overtake oestrogen levels. (http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/images/5_menstrual_cycle.gif)

Hormone levels during the mentrual cyle

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Hormones In Fertility #5

Contraceptive Pills

examples

  • Femdom - Comdon - Injection - Implant
  • Contraception is to stop the sperm and the egg meeting and fertilising .
  • Barrier method physically stop sperm into the uterus and oviduct.
  • Stop ovulational preevent implantition
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Hormones In Fertility #6

Infertile women can use IVF and other hormones  .

IVF

Advantages

  • Help people that can't consive naturally .
  • Screen the genetic diseases .

 

  • Disadvantages .
  • Expenise #risk of multiple babies
  • Does not alaways work
  • side effects when taking hormones .
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