Biology

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Fitness and Health

Health - How healthy someone is. Eg. Free from disease or infection.

Fitness - How fast you can recover from physical excersize 

Blood pressure is measured in Systolic pressure and Diastolic pressure

High B.P= Blood vessels more likely to burst. Increased risk of brain damage. Increased risk of heart disease.

Low B.P= Dizziness. Finting. Poor circulation.

BMI = Body mass index - Weight (kg) divide by height(M) then divide by height again.

Homeostasis - Keeping thngs in the body the same Eg. Temperature at 37

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Smoking

Smoking  = Thrombosis - Increases BP and heart rate

              = Nicotine - puts strain on the heart 

              = Carbon Monoxide - Restrics oxygen going to organs causing them to fail 

              = Tar - Affedcts breathing and thickens blood

              = Multiple Chemicals - Leads to furing of the artaries.

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Variation and Inheritance

Environmental - Tattoo, Accent , Piercing , Scar , 

Inhereted/Genetic - Natural hair colour, Body Sturcture , Conditions/Disorders , Skin Tone.

Dominant - Dominant gene

Recessive - Weaker genes need double for blue eyes

Men and Women have 46 chromosomes

Heterozygus 

Homozygus

Genotype - Genetic make up for a trait

Phenotype - Physical feature for that characteristic

Girl = **

Boy = xy

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Classification

Classification is thw grouping of things according to characteristics.

-Kingdom        

-Phylum 

-Class

-Order

-Family

-Genus                                                Latin name = Genus Species

-Species

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Energy Flow, Pyramids of number and biomass

Producer - Always a plant.

Makes its own food by photosnthesis

Converts light energy from the sun into chemical energy.

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sense organs and the eyes

Sense organs - Smell , Touch, Sight , Taste, Hearing

Short Sighted - Eye ball is too long or has the wrong shaped lens - Can add a concave lens(Myopia)

The image is focused infront of the retina not on it.

Long sighted - eyeball is too short or wrong shaped lens. - Can add a convex lens(Hypermetropia)

Image is focused behind the retina 

Red/green colour blindness- some people can not tell the difference between red and green.

Bi-nocular - Two eyes

Monocular - One eye

Tri-nocular - Three eyes

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The Nervous System

It is used to detect stimuli

Receptors - Sensors on the body that detect stimuli the information they pick up is passed along nerve fibres to the brain.

Neurons- The nerve fibres are made up of lots of nerve cells called neurons. Information passes along Neurons as electrical signals known as impulses.

A Sensory - Carries impulses from the receptor to the spinal chord.

A Relay- Carries impulses from the spinal chord to the brain and then back along the spinal chord.

Motor - Takes impulses from the spinal chord to the effector (muscle)

Made up of -

The brain

The spinal chord

Nerve Fibres

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Plants

Phototropism- Light

Geotropism- Gravity

Hudrotropism- Water

Tropism - Plants detect something and respond to it

Auxin - Plant hormone 

Stimulus - Evokes a specific reaction

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