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what are the main features found in all living cel

All plants and Algal cells have:

  • a cell wall- made of cellulose (strengthens the cell, gives it suport)
  • chloroplasts- contain chlorophyll
  • permanent vacuole-space in cytoplasm filled with cell sap
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how do plant cells differ from animal cells?

plant cells contain a cell wall and chlorolast where as animal cell doesnt

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what is a specialist cell?

a cell that has a specific job.a few examples are;

muscle cell

hair cell

sperm cell

nerve cell

red blood cell

white blood cell

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what is an Enzyme? what does it do?

a biological catalyst

it breaks down large molecules into smaller molecules in the human gut

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what is the word equation for photosynthesis?

carbon dioxide+water (arrow) glucose+oxygen

6CO2+6H20(arrow) C6H12O6+6O2

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what is the mitochondria?

found in cytoplasm

this is where oxygen is used and most of the energy is released during respiration

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what is the ribosome?

this is where proteinsynthesis occurs.

All protein needed to the cells are made here

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what is the cell membrane?

controls the passage of substance in and out of the cell

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what is the nucleus?

controls the activity of the cell

contains the genetic information 

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what is the cytoplasm?

a liquid cell where most of the chemical actions needed for life takes place

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in a bacteria/yeast cell, what features does it co

cell membrane

genetic material

slime captule

cell wall




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what can increase the rate of diffusion? and examp

an area of high concentration and an area of low concentration.

carbon dioxide in the cell- if the concentration gets to high it moves out of the cell and back into the lungs

glucose- if there is a high concetration of glucose outsdie the cell it passes through into the cell

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why do some cells contain microvilli?

to increase the surface area of the cell so they can diffuse easily

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what are organs? examples of organs?

organs are made up of tissues. one organ can contain several tissues



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what are the limiting factors for photosynthesis?

  • Light intensity
  • temperature
  • carbon dioxide levels
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what are proteins? what are they used for?

long chains of amino acids 

used for:

  • structual components such as muscles and tendens
  • hormones such as insulin
  • antibodies- destroy pathogens
  • cataylsts- in forms of enzymes
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how are carbohydrates digested?

broken down by enzymes called carbohydrases (Amylases)

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how is protein digested?

broken down into amino acids by a cataylst called protease- happens in your stomach, pancreas and small intestines

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how are fats digested?

lipids (fats/oils) broken down into fatty acids and glycerol. this reaction is cataylsed by lipase enzymes

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what is mitosis?

original cell divide into 2 cells- both exactly the same as the original cell.

It has:

  • has the same number of chomosomes as original cell
  • the cells produced are identical
  • used in asexual reproduction or the production of new body cells
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what is meiosis?

produces a copy of orginal cell- new cell then separate again- only half of genetic information each.

It has:

  • half the chromosomes of the orginal cells
  • used in sexual reproduction- the new production of gametes
  • four cells are produced.cells produced are all equal
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what is Heterozygous?

genes are different

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what is homozygous?

genes are the same

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how did dinosaurs go extinct?

metorite hit mexico and sent shockwaves +sand around the earth in the air, sand blocked the sun causing quick climate change. particles of rock came back to earth as moltern.

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what ways can organisms go extinct?

New diseases

new predators

new competition

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what is natural selection?

"survival of the fittest"

the strongest animals survive while the weaker animals get eaten/killed by predators. the strongest survive and produce- passing on the the strong characteristics.

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what is geographical isolation? how are new specie

when a specy is split into 2(or more) different habitats and become isolated from each other. The doffernt groups under go natural selectionto help them evolve to their new habitat.

geographical- when the specie is physically separated. could be due to mountains, rivers and islands

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what is a tissue?

a collection of speciallised cells that form to make tissues with a simular function

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name 1 type of a plant tissue and its function

mesophyll tissues carries out photosynthesis

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what is the active site?

special shape of an enzyme molecule

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whats the difference between greenhouse and hydrop

greenhouse- plants are grown in soil and atmosphere is controlled to produce best plants.

hydroponics- plants are grown in water with a perfect balance of mineral ions instead of soil

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biology revision cards 

Megan Foxall

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