Biology - B7

  • Created by: abbiedye
  • Created on: 24-06-18 13:25

Why do organisms need to compete?

- Organisms need things from their environment and from other organisms in order to survive and reproduce

Plants - need light and space and mineral ions (nutrients)

Animals - need space, food, water and mates

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How do environment changes effect organisms?

- each species depends on other species for things like food, shelter, pollination and seed dispersal

- if one is killed off or decreased, the rest of the chain is effected

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What are abiotic factors?

- non-living factors

  • moisture level
  • light intensity
  • temperature
  • carbon dioxide level (plants)
  • wind intensity and direction
  • oxygen level (aquatic)
  • soil pH and mineral content

- change in environment could be an increase or decrease in an abiotic factor

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What are biotic factors?

- living factors

  • new predators
  • competition
  • new pathogens
  • availability of food

- change in the environment could be the introduction of a new biotic factor (new predator/pathogen)

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What are adaptations?

- Organisms, including microorganisms, are adapted to live in different conditions

- The features or characteristics that allow them to do this are called adaptations

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What are structural adaptations?

- features of an organism's body structure - shape or colour

Arctic fox - camouflage - to avoid predators

Whales - thick layer of blubber and low surface area to volume ratio - to retain heat

Camels - then layer of fat and a large surface area to volume ratio - to lose heat 

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What are behavioural adaptations?

- ways that organisms behave

Many species (e.g. swallows) migrate to warmer climates during the winter to avoid the problems of living in cold conditions

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What are functional adaptations?

- things that go on inside the body that can be related to processes like reproduction and metabolism

Desert animals - conserve water - sweat very little and small amounts of concentrated urine

Brown bears - hibernate - lower metabolism to conserve energy

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Why do microorganisms adapt?

- Microorganisms have a huge variety of adaptations so that they can live in a wide range of environments

extreme conditions such as high temperatures, high salt concentrations and high pressures

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What is a food chain?



each part of the food chain depend on each other

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What is the water cycle?

  • Water evaporates and transpirates - to make water vapour
  • Warm water is carried upwards and condenses to form clouds
  • It is then precipitated (rain) onto land and provides fresh water for plants and animals
  • It then evaporates and transpirates again
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What is the carbon cycle?

Carbon dioxide is absorbed into the air by fossil fuels, waste, decay, respiration and combustion

It is then absorbed back by trees using photosynthesis

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What is biodiversity?

The variety of different species of organsims on Earth, or within an ecosystem

It is important fo the Earth's biodiversity to be high

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How does population increases effect biodiversity?

The increasing population puts pressure on the environment

People are demanding a higher standard of livin - using raw resources

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Waste products of reducing biodiversity

Water - sewage and toxic chemicals can pollute lakes, river and oceans, affecting organisms that rely on them

Land - we use toxic waste, bury nuclear waste and dump household waste - landfill

Air - smoke and acidic gases pollute the air - sulfur dioxide = acid rain

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What is global warming?

Gases like carbon dioxide and methane trap energy from the sun in the earth's atmosphere, meaning it can't escape

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Consequences of global warming

Seawater wil expand and ice will melt - sea level will rise

Distribution of many wild animals and plants may change - rainfall

Change in migration patterns

Biodiversity could be reduced if some species are unable to survive

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What do humans use land for?

Building, quarrying, farming and dumping waste

Less land for other organisms

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What is deforestation?

  • cutting down of forests
  • cuts down tropical areas


  • clearing land for farming 
  • to grows crops for biof
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What are the problems of deforestation?

- less carbon dioxide taken in

- more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

- less biodiversity

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Peat bogs carbon dioxide

  • Bog are areas of land that are acidic and waterlogged. Plants that live in bogs don't fully decay - not enough exygen
  • When peat is drained, it comes into contact with air and microorganisms decompose it. They use respiration and let out carbon dioxide.
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Programs protecting ecosystems and biodiversity

  • breeding programmes
  • protect and regenerate rare habitats
  • reintroduce hedgerows and field margins
  • reducing deforestation
  • reducing waste
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Conflicting pressures of maintaining biodiversity

  • costs money
  • cost to local people's livelihood
  • conflict between protecting biodiversity and food security
  • development is important but can affect the environment
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