Biological Approach

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  • Created by: c.law
  • Created on: 04-03-15 18:47

Assumption

1. the structure and function of neurons

nerve cells

- sensory neurons = sensory recptor - central nervous system

structure - axon and dendrites (other neurons - cell body)

2. the structure and function of the brain

2 hemispheres - right and left

outer layer is known as the cortex

4 lobes - frontal, parietal, occiptal, temporal

damage certain areas = loses that certain function

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Theory

Selye - General adaptation syndrome (GAS)

Stress - general reaction / psychological and physical response to something in the environment that is mentally demanding

3 stages:

1) alarm stage - hypothalamus sends signals to the adrenal gland and adrenaline

- cortisol is released / increase heart rate and blood pressure / fight or flight response

2) resistance stage

-body needs a mean of coping with this stress / normal temperature regulations

outside is coping / inside resources are depleted / fight or flight is less effecitve 

3) Exhaustion 

immune system breaks down due to the release of cortisol - high blood pressure

rats - extreme cold / drugs / same reaction / hospital patients - same symptoms

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Therapy

assumption: physical and biological cause

aim: psychosurgery to disable areas of the brain to alleviate the serve symptoms of mental illness

link: focuses on the brain influencing behaviour

moniz - prefrontal lobotomy - drilling holes/ / leucotome / prefrontal cortex

freeman - transbortial lobotomy - eye socket / fatality rate is up to 6%

stereotactic psychosurgery - brain scans

capsolotomy - probes / heating tips / portions of tissues

deep brain stimulation - reversible / wires / battery pack

cosgrove and raugh report (2001)

capsolotomy - 67% of OCD / 55% major affective disorder

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Strengths and Weaknesses

+ deterministic

predetermined by our genetics

E.g. depression - low levels of serotonin

know the cause / treatment / drugs - increase levels of serotonin

+ scientific

brain scans & lab experiments on animals

cause and effect / schizophrenia - drugs to reduce levels of dopamine

- ignores the nurture side of the debate

limit treatment offered

- ignores individual differences

nomothetic / medication - reduce symptoms or side effects

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Methodology

lab experiment on animals

- objective & subjective / artifical environment = manipulate IV to see its effect on the DV

- E.g. selyes rats = IV - stressor / DV - rats repsonse

+ extraneous variables - diet / cause & effect / replicable

- different brain size and structure

brain scans 

- brain activity and the nervous system

- MRI = structure = maguire et al - taxi drivers

- PET = brain activity = tracer - less(red/hot) / more(blue/cold)

+ alive / clear image / MRI - no radiation

- MRI - noisy / PET - radiation

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