• Created by: Ediva1802
  • Created on: 13-01-22 16:54

Health and Disease

Health: the absence of disease or injury

Disease: having specific symptoms that affect a specific tissue, organ or system of the body 

Communicable: can be transmitted from person to person

STI'S (pubic lice, herps, gonorrhea), Covid 19, Influenzia, Mumps

Non-communicable: cannot be transmitted from person to person, can be related to lifestyle choices or carried genes.

Liver disease, sickle-cell disease, cancer, Asthma

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Types of Diseases

Bacteria: Tuberculosis, Salmonella, Pneumia

Protists: Malaria

Virus: Cold, Influenza, COVID 19, Ebola

Fungi: Athlete's foot, Ring worm

Symptoms: Feelings or changes experienced during illness (e.g., Sore throat or runny nose). Symptoms may appear only after a pathogen has divided enough times to produce a large amount in the body.

Incubation Period: The delay between infection with a pathogen and the appeance of symptoms of disease. It can be anything from a few hours to several years, depending on the pathogen

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Plant Diseases

Ash Dieback Fungi

Brown dead hanging leaves, Speakling on the leaves and cracks on the main branch.Spores being blown around by the wind and being passed to plants around.Ash trees

Crown Gall Disease

Tumours on stems, found in the soil.Caused by bacteria, Contaminated soil, water and farming tools.Grape vines, stone fruits, nut trees, sugar beets.


Leaves to discolouration, growth of the plant is reduced. Direct contact and contaminated seeds. Tomato plants, bell peppers, cucumbers, some flowers.

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Physical and Chemical barriers

  • Skin
  • Mucus- reproductive, respiratory and digestive system
  • Cilia- wafts mucus back up to be swallowed into the stomach
  • Nose hair 
  • Sweat
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Body mass index is a measure of a person's body mass compared to their height in metres.

BMI: Weight (Kg)

        Height (m)2

<19 Underweight

19-24 Healthy bodymass

25-29 Overweight

30+ Obese

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Type 2 Diabetes

Risk Factors

  • Obesity
  • Overwieight
  • Poor diet - high fat and high sugar diet
  • Inactive lifestyle- lacks exercise
  • high blood sugar levels 
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Lung Cancer

Risk Factors

  • Smoking
  • Air pollution from motor vehicles
  • Breathing in asbestos fibres
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Aerobic respiration

C6 H12 O6 + 6O2 ---> 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy is released

Glucose + Oxygen ----> Carbon dioxide + water 

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Anaerobic Respiration

Glucose ----> Lacid Acid 

No oxygen is used  

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Gas Exchange

Image result for gas exchange diagram

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Animal Cell

Image result for animal cell diagram

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Plant Cell

Image result for Plant Cell

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Yeast Cell

Image result for yeast cell diagram

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Image result for mitosis

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Image result for meiosis

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Image result for meiosis

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Plant Hormones

Image result for Auxin in Plants

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Red Blood Cells

Don't have a nucleus. Shaped like a biconave disk (large surface area). Oxygen in red blood cells.

White Blood Cells

Do have a nucleus, antitocins: neutralise any toxins, antibodies: bind into pathogens and help destroy them, phagocytosis: engulf pathogens 


No nucleus, Float around in the blood, cotting, could cause infection, small fragments of cells


Carries everything- waste product 

glucose, amino acids   CO2

makes the blood watery so it can flow

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Nervous System and Neurons

Effectors: Muscle or gland that carries out the response to a stimulus

Receptors: A specialised cell that dectects changes in an organism's environment. Also a specialised molecule on the surface of a cell that recognises and binds to  a specific subsance.

Neuron: A specailised cell in the nervous system that transmits nerve impulses

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Flow chart of Nervous system

Stimulus ---> Receptor ----> Sensory neuron ----> Processing/ coordinating centre (Brain or spinal cord) ---> motor neuron ----> Effector ---> Response

Light comes on, it is brighter ---> Eye ----> Sensory neuron ----> Brain ----> Motor neuron -----> Iris Muscles -----> Pupil contracts 

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Reflexes and Synapses

Image result for reflexes and synapses

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The Menstrual Cycle

Image result for the menstrual cycle

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Image result for Contraception Types

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Simple sugars

Image result for simple sugars biology

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Complex Carbohydrates

Image result for complex carbohydrates biology

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  • Secreted by the pancreas 
  • Triggered by high levels of glucose
  • Causes the liver and muscles to store glucose 
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  • Secreted by the pancreas 
  • Triggered by low levels of glucose
  • Causes the liver and muscles to release glucose
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