An act done by the muscles without any mind control.
Bratty V AG
1) AR is not carried out voluntarily and does not have the specific offence MR.
- Must be caused by an external factor eg: blow to the head or attack by swarm of bees - Hill V Baxter.
R V T - exceptional stress is also sufficient.
AG'S Ref - There must be total destruction of voluntary control not partial.
self induced automatism
When D knows their actions are likely to bring about an automatic state
eg: a diabetic not eating after medication, drinking when told you - R V Bailey
Specific intent = automatism is available.
Basic intent = D is not available for defence unless:
- They do not know their actions will lead to an automatic state.
- or a drug has a different than expected effect - R V Hardie