Acid-base Reactions

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  • Created by: J.E.C.
  • Created on: 11-04-14 13:37

Acidic Solutions

Properties of acidic solutions:

> Turn litmus red

> Neutralised by bases

> pH <7

> Liberate CO2 from carbonates

Acids = proton donors & Bases = proton acceptor = Bronsted-Lowry Theory

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Solutions of Acids & Bases

HCl conducts electricity, so must contain ions

HCl + H2O --> H3O+ + Cl-

H3O+ Oxonium ion - present in every solution of an acid in water & can donate H+

When an acid dissolves in water, H+ ions form in solution.

Alkali = base that dissolves in water to produce OH ions

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Acid-base pairs

Conjugate base: eg ethanoate ions accept H+ ions from the stronger acid and go back to ethanoic acid

HA --> H+ + A-

Conjugate acid --> H+ + conjugate base

If water is reacting with a strong acid, water acts as a base

If water is reacting with a strong base - water acts as an acid

Water = amphoteric

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Strength of Acids & Bases and Indicators

A strong acid has a weak conjugate base.

Strong acid: strong tendancy to donate H+ Conjugate base: weak tendancy to accept them back

Concentration - number of particles in a given volume of solution.


Coloured organic substances which are weak acids.

The conjugate acid and base have different colours.

Litmus acid: red conjugate base: blue

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