1.2.1 Inspiration and expiration (exchange surfaces and breathing)

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Inspiration

Inspiration- Active process (requires energy)

  • Intercostal muscles and diaphragm contract.
  • The diaphragm is flat.
  • The thorax increases therefore there is less pressure in the lungs causing airflow into the lungs
  • The ribcage moves upwards and outwards

Expiration- Passive process (doesnt require energy)

  • Intercostal muscles and diaphragm is relaxed
  • The diaphragm is curved
  • The thorax volume decreases causing more pressure in the lungs
  • Air is forced out the lungs
  • The ribcage moves downwards and inwards
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Spirometer, Tidal volume, and vital capacity defin

Spirometer:

  • is a machine that can give readings of Tidal volume, Vital capacity, oxygen intake and breathing rate

Tidal volume:

  • The volume of air breathed in and out when at rest. Usually about 0.5dm

Vital Capacity:

  • The maximum volume of air breathed in plus the maximum volume of air breathed out.
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Spirometer process

  • An oxygen chamber filled with water.
  • Attached to it is a movable lid.
  • When you breathe in and out the lid moves up and down.
  • A pen is attached on to the lid and is touching down on a piece of paper.
  • The pen traces the pattern of the moving lid.
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