Working Memory Model

AQA,A Memory

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The working memory model was devised by;"Baddeley and
The dual-task technique is where;"participants are asked to
carry out a primary task (reasoning/sentence checking)
while also engaging in a secondary task (reciting a list of 6
digits). Performance is compared with the performance
when each task is done individually."
The results from the dual-task technique suggests there is
more than one store within the STM because;"participants
made few errors when performing the tasks simultaneously,
although it took them longer to perform the reasoning
The components of the working memory model are;"the
central executive, the visuo-spatial sketchpad and the
phonological loop."
The phonological loop is also known as;"'the inner voice'."
The phonological loop is;"a limited capacity, temporary
memory store for verbal information in speech based form."
The phonological loop is made up of;"the articulatory control
system (articulatory loop) and the phonological store."
The 'word length effect' is that;"the capacity of the
phonological loop is dependent on the length of time taken
to say words rather than the number of items;
approximately 1.5 seconds length."
'Word length effect' was tested by;"presenting participants
visually with words with different numbers of syllables and
asking them to serial recall. One-syllable words were
remembered better than polysyllabic words."

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Methodological issues of the study of the effect of the
number of syllables of words on the capacity of the
phonological loop are;"high internal validity because it was a
well controlled, laboratory experiment, however longer
words are less familiar than shorter words and it is possible
that this is why they were harder to recall."
Articulatory suppression is when;"a participant is given a
task that would usually make use of the articulatory loop,
but they are simultaneously asked to repeat a meaningless
chant.…read more

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The visuo-spatial sketchpad is made up of;"the inner scribe
and the visual cache."
The difference between the inner scribe and the visual
cache is that;"the visual cache stores information about
visual form and colour whereas the inner scribe processes
spatial and movement information."
The difference between the inner scribe and the visual
cache was tested by;"asking participants to perform either
a visual or a spatial primary task, while completing a spatial
interference task, a visual interference task or no
interference task.…read more

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Baddeley et al discovered the phonological loop plays a key
role in the development of reading and that;"the
phonological loop is not operative in some children with
The 'working memory span' is;"the number of words
participants can correctly recall from a list they had been
holding in their head whilst completing mental arithmetic
problems.…read more


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