Vietnam War (US involvement)

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  • Created on: 27-04-13 17:52
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1. Why had Vietnam fought the Japanese
The Japanese occupied French Vietnam and treated the Vietnamese savagely
The Viet Minh, a strong anti-Japanese movement ruled under the leadership of Communist Ho Chi
Minh
2. Who was Ho Chi Minh?
He was a communist who lead the Viet Minh
3. Who won the war and when?
After WW2, the Viet Minh occupied north Vietnam and were
determined to rule the rest
4. Why did Vietnam fight the French?
After WW2, the French tried to regain Vietnam but the Vietnamese were determined not to get
conquered
This followed another nine years of bloody war
5. How and why did the Americans help the French?
The Americans saw the Viet Minh as puppets of Ma9o and the Chinese communists
They helped the French by pouring 500 million dollars a year into French War effort
6. Who won the war an what were the consequences for Vietnam
The French were unable to stay and cope in Vietnam so in 1954, they retreated
A peace treaty in Geneva was held and the country was split into North and South Vietnam until
elections could be held to decide its future
7. When were elections supposed to be held in Vietnam
Under the terms of the ceasefire between the French and Viet Minh, elections were to be held
within two years to re-unite the country, 1955
8. Why was the US hypocritical?
America had a go at Stalin for not using free elections
They wanted to try and change the rules of democracy, fearing that the
Communists would get to power
They stopped the elections
9. What happened in 1955?
The Americans helped Ngo Dinh-Diem to set up the Republic of South Vietnam
He was anti-communist
10. Who was Ngo Dinh Duem? Write a few sentences about him and his regime
Bitterly anti-communist
He was prepared to imprison or exile communists
Page | 1
Sam Chippeck 11PDA/GDS

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He belonged to the landlord class, treating the Vietnamese peasants with Contempt
He was Christian and showed little respect to the Buddhists-this humiliated the Americans
He was corrupt
11. In what ways did he receive American support
The USA supported Diem's regime, with around $1.6 billon
They believed no one was better than him
12. What were the consequences of these anti-communist governments in South Vietnam?
The national front of liberation for South Vietnam was established in December in 1960
13.…read more

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His successor was Lyndon Johnson
18. What happened in 1964 in the Gulf of Tonkin?
In August 1964, North Vietnamese patrol boats opened fire on US ships in the gulf of Tonkin
19. How did the USA react?
The Americans reacted furiously
The US congress passed the Tonkin Gulf Resolution which gave Lyndon
Johnson the power to `take all necessary measures to prevent further
aggression and achieve peace and security'
This meant that he could take the USA into a full-scale war if necessary
20.…read more

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What was the Domino theory (5)
THE TACTICS OF THE VIETCONG
Guerrilla tactics:
Hit and run attacks
Retreat when the enemy attacks
Raid when the enemy camps
Attack when the enemy tires
Pursue when the enemy retreats
They used this because they were outnumbered by Americans. They
wouldn't win in open warfare so using Guerrilla tactics would confuse the Americans as they
knew their area well
An example was in China.…read more

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They depended on supplies from North Vietnam that came along the Ho Chi Minh trail. US and
South Vietnamese planes bombed this but 40,000 Vietnamese worked to keep the trail open at
whatever cost
The total losses of Vietcong and North Vietnam dead in the war were an estimate of 1 MILLION
­far higher than US losses.
However, Ho Chi Minh was prepared to pay as there were replacement troops available, at
whatever casualties there were.…read more

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Damaged North Vietnam's supply route and war USA air power did not defeat
effort Communists, it only slowed them
down.…read more

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Search and destroy tactics made US and South Vietnamese troops unpopular with the
villagers, that it led them to supporting the Vietcong.
THE PROBLEMS USA FACED IN VIETNAM
1. Low morale and inexperience
Many of young men never went to military before. The average age was only 19. Many recruits
had just left school. 60% Americans 17-21 were killed
The soldiers knew very little about the country they were fighting for. They cared little about
democracy or communism and wanted to get home alive.…read more

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March 1968: The Charlie company ( a group of soliders) started a search and destroy mission
They were told that there was a Vietcong headquarters and that there were
over 200 Vietcong guerrillas
They did this on a Saturday, because they claimed that all the civilians would
be at market day and anyone that was left (whom they assumed the
Vietcong) would be killed
16th March in My Lai, 300-400 civilians were killed-most were women and
children.…read more

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Vietnam war highlighted the inequality between blacks and whites
This was because you could escape the draft if you went to university
VERY FEW black people went to university
30% of African Americans fought in the war but only 19% whites were drafted.
They suffered racism from whites in the army
Muhammad Ali refused to fight, on grounds with his Muslim faith.…read more

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What was the Tet offensive
2. When was it
3. Why was it a disaster for the Communists
4. Why was it good for the communists
5. Why was the Tet offensive a TURNING point in the war
6. Why did Johnson not seek re-election
1. When the Vietcong attacked over a hundred cities and other military targets
2. Early 1968
3. The Vietcong lost 10,000 experienced fighters and were badly weakened by it.…read more

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