Unit 2

Chains, Energy and Resources

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  • Created on: 20-03-12 18:42
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Mr s
C ut
ter
C h emist r
y N o t
e s
A cc ur
acy­ame
a s u reo f th ec
l ose nesso
f ag re e me n t b et
w ee na ni n div i
du al
t
e st
r
es ul
t
a n d
t hea
c ceptedr e f
ere n c ev
a l u e.
Ifat e st
re sul t i
sa ccu r at e.
It i
si nc lo sea g r
eeme nt wit
ht
he
a cc ep t
ed ref
e ren ce
v a l
u e
E rro r
­t hed
i fferen c eb
e t w e ena
ni n di
vidu al me a sure me n t an dt
het
r
u ev
alue( o r
accep ted
r ef
e r
en ce
va lue) of
t
h e q ua n ti
ty
be i
n g
me as ur e d
P re cisi
on­c
l osen e sso f a g reeme nt betw ee ni n d ep e n d en t
me asure me nt
so
b tai
ne du
n d er
t hes
a mec o ndit
ion s. I
t de p e ndso
n l
yo nt hed
i s tri butio no f rand om er ro r
s(
I
.e.
thes
p r
e ado f
me a sureme n t
s) and do e s n o t
r
e l
ate
to the tru e
v a l
u e
U n c ert
aint
y­a
ne s t
i ma t ea
t t
a che dt
oame
a s u r eme n t w h i
chc h ara ct er
isest
her
an geo
f
v alu esw
ithinw h icht h et
r
u ev a l
uei
s assertedt ol i
e .
T h i
s
i
s n orma ll
y e xp r
esseda
s ar
angeo f
v alu es as
44 .0 ± 0.
4
R e liabi
li
ty­t
heo
p p o s i
teo f unce r
ta i
n t
y, i
.e .
if th eu n ce rtain tyi
sg reat,
th eme
a s uremen t
i
s n't
v ery r
eli
able
O r
g ani
c Che mis t
ry
S ubje ct
is
th e
c he mi s t
ry
o f
ca rbon c omp o u n ds
C arbo n can f
o r m l
o n g chai
ns of cov al
e n tl y bon d e d c a r
bo n
a t
oms or
can f or
m r
ings
C arbo n comp o un d s a l
l
bu r
n i
n
o xyg en ma k ing C O 2 a nd H 2O
an d energy
I t
take s a l
ot
o f
en e rg y to
bre a k
C H
a n d C C b o n ds
T he a ct i
va tio n
ene r
gi es are so h i
g h
T hey
d o n ot re act
at an y si
g nif
i c an t rate (s o
li fe ca n exi
s t
)
E ach carbon ha s 4
c o valent b onds
C arb o n
ha s
4 el
ectro ns i
n i
ts ou te r s he l
l
H ydro ca r
bo ns
C omp o u nd s o f
carbo n and h yd r o g e n on ly
3 D me t
h ane
0
T hi
s mo lecu l e
is
symme t
rica l
w i
t h a bon d a n g le
o f
109.5
H omo l
o gous series
As e r
i eso
f c o mp oun d sw
h i chd
i f fe r f
r o m th en e xt
me mb er of
t
h e s erie s o n l
y
b y
the
a ddit
io n o f
a ­ CH 2 g ro u ps
N ami ng Al
ka n e s
Number of carbons Names Molecular Formula
1 Metha ne C H 4
2 Etha ne C H
2 6
3 Propa n e C 3 H8
4 Buta ne C H
4 1 0
N Alka ne C n H2 n + 2
ane tel l
s u s t
h at
the comp o und i
s a n a l
k an e
P r
e f
ix t
e ll
s us how ma n y car bo n
a to ms
a re
in the chai
n

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Page 2

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I f a CH 3 g r
o u p
is
a t
ta c h e d
t o
another
a t
om it
i
s
cal
led
a methyl
gr
oup
C n H 2n+1 = a l
ky l
I
somers
E .
g.…read more

Page 3

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B EC
A RE FULn
o t t
oa
s sumet hat
iti
st hes
trai
g ht
chaina
sd raw no
n
t
he paper
F indt
hef
ir
st
sidec h ai
n /
other at
om j
oinedt
ot hema
i nc
haina
n dn umb er
the
ma i
n c hain
star
ti
n g
at
the end w hich
gives
thi
s
the l
owe st
numb er
N a met hes
idec
h ainsa
c cordingt ot
hen…read more

Page 4

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I someri
s a ti
o n
I s o me rs
a re comp ou nd s w i
th
t h e sa me
mo lecul
a r formu l
a
bu t
d i
ff
ere n t
ar
rangeme nt
s
o f the i
r
a to ms i
n spa ce
S t
ru ctu r al i
some ri
s a t
ion
S tru ct
ura l
iso me r s h a v e
the s…read more

Page 5

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H eavi
er
o nes are w a xe s (
soli
d s )
T her
e i
s a
trend in phy s ical
pro pe rti
es as
the
Mr i
n cre ase s
Chemi
cal
pr
op er
ti
es
S i
mil
ar becau se
th ey
c o nt
a i
n th e same functiona l
gr oup
S at
urated
hyd roca rbon
A comp ou n dw
i t
hh
y d r og e…read more

Page 6

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We
s ay t
he coval
ent
bond has
bee n
broken
by homo l
yti
c f
issi
on
i.B reaki
ng b onds so thatt
h e shared pai
ro
fe
l e ct
ron s is
di
str
ibut
ed evenl
y bet
w een
the 2
atoms
2.…read more

Page 7

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T hi s
is
ca l
le d
a di pol
e ( + a nd
)
A n eig hbo u r
ingmo
l ec ul
ew i l
l the nb
ea f fecte db
yt his
t
e mp o raryd
i po le , ands oa n oth er ind uc e dd
ip olei
ss e t
u p
( i nd u c e d
me ans f or
ce d up o n
it
)
T he2d i…read more

Page 8

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C on diti
o ns
N i
c a ta lys t
o
1 50C
H ydro ge na te d f
a ts a r
e ma d e by
ad d i n g h yd rog en t
o un sa turat
e d
fat
s
T hea
l ken ef u n c t
i o n a l
g ro upw i ll
o nh y d rog ens
oas a t
u rat
e df at i
s
ma…read more

Page 9

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Thi
s in du ce s
a di
p ol
e
T h e Br
mo lecu l
e i
s n ow sl
i
g ht
ly
p ol
ar
+
Thee
l ec t
ronp a i
r
int
h eb
o nda
rea
t t
r actedt ot
heB
r andb
reakt
hed
o uble
bond
A new C Br
bon d
is
fo r
me d
Thes
h ar edp a i
r
of el
e ctr
on so
f theB…read more

Page 10

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Condi
ti
ons:
Radi
cal
poly me r
i s at
ion
o
2 00C
V ery h igh press ure
L ead s to s ome b ran c h ing of
t
h e p ol
yme r
chai
ns
Zi
egl
e r
Natta P r
o cess
L ow er temp erature
S ma ll
c on v ersi
o n
ra t e
to
t he p ol
yme r
but
unreacted
alkenes
recycl
ed
U sed for n onb…read more

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