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B2 Topic 1 Revision­ Inside Living Cells

DNA Structure and Function

DNA structure
Chromosomes are made up of genes
Genes are made up of DNA
The DNA molecule is two strands coiled together to form a
The sides of the ladder are made of a sugar called deoxyribose…

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For example:
DNA coding strand sequence:
mRNA sequence:
3. mRNA made
4. mRNA leaves nucleus
Stage 2: Translation
1. mRNA attaches to a ribosome
2. tRNA anticodons pair up with complimentary mRNA codons (a triplet of bases)
3. There is a specific tRNA for each of the 20 different…

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FERMENTATION ­ using microorganisms to break down nutrients into useful products, for example:
penicillin, Quorn, soy sauce.
Sections of DNA coding for specific proteins can be transferred into microorganisms, which are then
cultivated in fermenters to produce useful substances, for example: HUMAN INSULIN

Aseptic Conditions
Maintained by:

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Aerobic Respiration

Provides the energy for work (e.g.: muscle contraction, building proteins and sending messages through

DIFFUSION = movement of molecules from an area where they are at a high concentration to an
area where they are at a lower concentration.

1. Glucose and oxygen diffuse from capillaries…




A well presented set of notes with good detail and some annotated diagrams.These would be useful for most GCSE Biology specifications. As they are not in colour highlighting key words might be helpful. Team these up with a quiz or  a set of flashcards to test your knowledge.

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