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Page 1

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Revision X'mas 2011
15 December 2011

Definition of Isotopes
Mass Spectrometry
Shapes of Molecules
Group 7 - Halogens
Co -ordinate Bonding (Dative)
Metallic Bonding
Ionic Bonding
Covalent Bondingaqa
First Ionisation Energy
Naming Molecules
Relative atomic mass
Percentage atom economy
Empirical formula
Thermal Cracking
Global Dimming

Page 2

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Definition of Isotopes
15 December 2011

Isotope: atoms of the same element with the same atomic number but a different atomic mass.
Isotope: Atoms with the same number of protons in its nucleus and different number of neutrons

Atomic Number: Proton Number i.e. the number of Protons in a…

Page 3

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Mass Spectrometry
15 December 2011

Gives us an accurate value for the relative atomic mass.

What happens?
Atoms are made into ions by firing electrons at them, this knocks out electrons forming positive ions.
The process has to take place under a vacuum.
The sample must be gaseous

Page 4

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Group 7 - Halogens
15 December 2011

Electronegativity decreases down the group
The Atomic Radius, melting point, boiling point increase down the group.

Chemistry RG Page 4

Page 5

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Metallic Bonding
15 December 2011

Metallic lattice
Close packed metal ions
High melting and boiling points

Chemistry RG Page 5

Page 6

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Ionic Bonding
15 December 2011

Lose outer electrons

Electrostatic Lattice

Chemistry RG Page 6

Page 7

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Covalent Bonding
15 December 2011

Sharing of electrons between non metals
Forms Neutrally charged molecules.

Chemistry RG Page 7

Page 8

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First Ionisation Energy
15 December 2011

The energy required to remove one mole of electrons from the molecule, when in gas state

The energy required to remove one mole of electrons from one mole of atoms, when in gas state

X(g) X(g)+ + e -

Due to repulsion of…

Page 9

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Shapes of Molecules
15 December 2011

Easy Guide:

1. Count electron pairs:
Count Number of electrons in base element:

C= 4
O= 6
F= 7

Then add the number of elements bonded to it:

CCl 2F2 = 4


Then divide by 2

8/2=4 pairs therefore 4 lines…

Page 10

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Chemistry RG Page 10




Concise notes on the Topic 1 but could do with some more examples e.g shapes of molecules, give a definition of relative atomic mass rather than an equation.

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