Nazi Germany

Summary of Layton's The Third Reich 3rd Edition 208 page book in only 13!! Great for key dates, key figures, historians views and interpretations of the Third Reich.

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1929 ­ 33 Great Depression
Mass unemployment = 1932 5.6 mn registered unemployed (around 8mn)
Economic inactivity = value of exportation dropped by 62%
30 Jan 33 Hitler made Chancellor
Nazi Party have 45% vote
27 Feb 33 Reichstag Fire
Communists blamed
28 Feb Decree of Emergency = dissolved other parties
23 March 33 Enabling Act
Unlimited power for 4 years
2 May 33 DAF set up
All other trade unions dissolved
22 June 33 Banned Social Democrats
14th July NSDAP only legal party
30 June 34 Knight of the Long Knives
SA destroyed by SS
2 Aug 34 Oath of Loyalty taken by the army
Hitler suspicious after the failure of Weimar Germany due to hostile elites
Gleichschaltung = Nazification of German society (authoritarian/ one party state)
Trade Unions become DAF (Robert Ley) German Labour Front = 2 mn
1) Church
2) Army
3) Big Business
Coordination = Civil Service and Education ~ incomplete
Hitler wanted a `revolution from above'
30 June 34 = Knight of the Long knives ~ `revolution from below'
Hitler Conceded demands of the army: resented the idea of `people's army'
Rohm reluctant to have the SA used as a tool for marches/rallies/propaganda
SA = 3,000,000 1934. Not political/military force
200 killed ~ Strasser radical left wing of Nazism
Significance? Army aligned to Nazism ~ Blomberg's Public Vote of Thanks July 1st
SA now used for propaganda. Hitler = Fuhrer 2nd August (Hindenburg dead)
Feb 33 = Hitler "avoid all detailed statements concerning an economic policy"
July 34 = Schacht Minister of Economics
Public investment ­ 2.2 million RM 32, 4.6 million RM in 34
Oct 36 = Goering ~ 4YP. `Guns or Butter?' Armed forces to be ready in 4 years/economy fit
Goering = Plenipotentiary 4YP. Deficient in 1/3 raw materials when war began

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Schacht "recklessly exploiting Germany's economic substance"
Blitzkrieg: Mason from 37 in danger from overheating
Overy "Blitzkrieg by default the result of an aim for total war"
GB/ FR declare war 39 = prevent GER being the war machine Hitler wanted
Economic competence relied on completion of 4YP
Full last year of peace GER GNP = 17%. GB = 8%.…read more

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Absolution/ Fuhrer
10 May 33 Burning of the Books ~ No German Culture
3345 2500 GER writers left, incl Mann Nobel Prize Winner
New objectivity = Art ~ Otto Dix = social/political message/36 Speer oversaw build Olympic st
Goebbels tried to create culture: 3345 1097 feature films, 96 = Ministry Propaganda
OVERT = Ewige Jude
EMOTIVE = Eg Triumph of the Will, 34 Nuremberg Rally ­ POLITICAL
Outsiders =
Ideological opponents Eg Communists
Biological `Inferior' = Gypsies/ Slavs/ Jews
July 33 = Law for…read more

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Jewish businesses targeted
20,000 to C.…read more

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Dualism ~ 5% civil servant purged, more joined party. Compulsory 39
March Converts (join NSDAP Jan/Mar 33)
Gauleiter = 30 regional
Zelle = 70,000 ~ 250 households
6mn members in 45
Huber = "Fuhrer power is comprehensive and total"
BUT Hitler still dependant on sympathetic subordinates ~ Eg policies to practice
Personality...…read more

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Delarue: "completeness"
Mallman/Paul: no more than 40,000
Eg Hamburg < 50 agents ~ 500,000 ppl
Denunciations contributed to 80% work
Relied on KRIPO
Johnson: target political left, Jews, religious groups, asocial
Waafen SS ­ `second army' (38 = 14,000 ~ fanatically loyal)
3 division in 39, 35 in 45
NEW ORDER: Economic/political/racial integration of EU under 3rd Reich
Propaganda & terror/repression:
"If the means achieves the end, then the means is good" Himmler
All public communication under state control
March 33 Goebbels = "using radio…read more

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Gen retired/ 44 transferred
Forced resignation of Field Marshal Blomberg/Gen Fritsch
Hitler took title of CommanderinChief of Army/ Minister of War
Feuchtwanger ~ "conservative elites...suffered a...loss of influence"
Keitel = High Command of Armed Forces ~ loyal subservient Gen
Hitler now confident enough to mould army
43 ~ defeat in N.…read more

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Alliance of overlapping power groups
Dependant on each other
Prepared to work together
POWER BLOC = Nazi Party, SSPolice system, Army, Big Business, High status bureaucracy
Fundamental division/conflicts]
Relationship not static ­ very fluid
Question of role/significance of Hitler himself
Early years ­ Nazism dependant on army/big business = their sympathy
34 destroy SA for Army (SS still small)
Rearmament gave importance to industry/ army
368 Hitler is politically stronger (SS police growth)
Less restricted by political compromise ~ vigorous aims!!
1936…read more

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KPD ~ communist party = 300,000 (32 = 17% popular vote)
Red Orchestra ~ spy network. 28 ­ 42. Leading activists drawn away by Spanish Civil War
SovietNazi pact compromised network from 39 ­ 41. June 41 ­ resistance groups isolated
White Rose Group ­ Scholl (Sophie) Leaflets 42/3. Munich UNi ­ towns.…read more

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Conspiracy = isolation
Huffenbuger "3rd Reich...succeeded in producing...…read more


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