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1929 ­ 33 Great Depression
Mass unemployment = 1932 5.6 mn registered unemployed (around 8mn)
Economic inactivity = value of exportation dropped by 62%

30 Jan 33 Hitler made Chancellor
Nazi Party have 45% vote

27 Feb 33 Reichstag Fire
Communists blamed
28 Feb Decree of Emergency = dissolved other…

Page 2

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Schacht "recklessly exploiting Germany's economic substance"
Blitzkrieg: Mason from 37 in danger from overheating
Overy "Blitzkrieg by default the result of an aim for total war"
GB/ FR declare war 39 = prevent GER being the war machine Hitler wanted
Economic competence relied on completion of 4YP
Full last year…

Page 3

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Absolution/ Fuhrer
Antimodernism

10 May 33 Burning of the Books ~ No German Culture
3345 2500 GER writers left, incl Mann Nobel Prize Winner

New objectivity = Art ~ Otto Dix = social/political message/36 Speer oversaw build Olympic st
Goebbels tried to create culture: 3345 1097 feature films, 96 =…

Page 4

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100 deaths/ 10,000 Jewish businesses targeted
20,000 to C.C
WHY? ­ Ernst Von Rath assassinated 7 Nov by Jew, Goebbels affair ~ undermining
30 Jan 39 Reichstag speech "annihilation of the Jewish Race in Europe"

28 Oct 38 Expel 17,000 Polish Jews in GER
3 Dec 38 Close all Jewish…

Page 5

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Totalitarianism
Dualism ~ 5% civil servant purged, more joined party. Compulsory 39
March Converts (join NSDAP Jan/Mar 33)
Gauleiter = 30 regional
Zelle = 70,000 ~ 250 households
6mn members in 45

Huber = "Fuhrer power is comprehensive and total"
BUT Hitler still dependant on sympathetic subordinates ~ Eg policies…

Page 6

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Delarue: "completeness"

Mallman/Paul: no more than 40,000
Eg Hamburg < 50 agents ~ 500,000 ppl
Denunciations contributed to 80% work
Relied on KRIPO

Johnson: target political left, Jews, religious groups, asocial

Waafen SS ­ `second army' (38 = 14,000 ~ fanatically loyal)
3 division in 39, 35 in 45

NEW…

Page 7

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16 Gen retired/ 44 transferred
Forced resignation of Field Marshal Blomberg/Gen Fritsch
Hitler took title of CommanderinChief of Army/ Minister of War
Feuchtwanger ~ "conservative elites...suffered a...loss of influence"
Keitel = High Command of Armed Forces ~ loyal subservient Gen
Hitler now confident enough to mould army
43 ~ defeat…

Page 8

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Alliance of overlapping power groups
Dependant on each other
Prepared to work together
Mommsen: STRUCTUALIST
POWER BLOC = Nazi Party, SSPolice system, Army, Big Business, High status bureaucracy
BUT
Fundamental division/conflicts]
Relationship not static ­ very fluid
Question of role/significance of Hitler himself


Early years ­ Nazism dependant on army/big…

Page 9

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KPD ~ communist party = 300,000 (32 = 17% popular vote)

Red Orchestra ~ spy network. 28 ­ 42. Leading activists drawn away by Spanish Civil War
SovietNazi pact compromised network from 39 ­ 41. June 41 ­ resistance groups isolated

White Rose Group ­ Scholl (Sophie) Leaflets 42/3. Munich…

Page 10

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Conspiracy = isolation
Huffenbuger "3rd Reich...succeeded in producing...conformity"
Sympathy for regime:
Economic recovery = creation jobs
Hitler Myth ­ `saviour'
Diplomatic / military victories
o 36 ­ 8 / 39 ­ 41

Totalitarian aspirations ­ Nazi opposition grew over 12 years, never going to achieve
Radical policies = personal/economic/moral problems…

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