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The sound of music ­revision



Sound waves are generated by vibrations (oscillations)
-One complete oscillation is called a cycle
-The time taken for one oscillation is the period (T) measured in seconds
- the number of oscillations in one second is frequency (F) measure in hertz(HZ)




Sounds waves are represented…

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Oscillations in phase are in time with each other and have zero phase difference
Oscillations in anti-phase are exactly opposite to each other and have a phase difference of
180 or rad
Any other difference of phase is called out of phase



Types of waves

Transverse ­ the particle disturbance…

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Superposition

This is what happens when two waves meet or overlap. At this point, the combined
displacement is the sum of the individual displacement.

1. Peak meets peak



2. Trough meets trough



3. Peak meets trough




Superposition can lead to a definite Patten if the waves are coherent, this means…

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Node to node is half a wavelength




You can only get s standing wave form when a whole number of " half wavelengths" fit into
to the total length available
E.g. 1 half wavelength




2 half wavelength




3 half wavelength




As the number of nodes increase the wavelength is getting…

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The series of standing waves that can be set up on a given length are known as harmonies or
overtones




All of these harmonics play simultaneously on different stringed instrument
The frequencies of these harmonies are all multiples of the fundamental
e.g.
fundamental- 20 HZ
1st harmonics- 40 HZ
2nd…

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Speed of waves in strings and air columns




Compact discs

CDs are read by reflections of laser light from a series of dips and bumps, which
spiral around the disk
Laser light is coherent- there is a constant phase difference, which means frequency
and amplitude are always the same.
This…

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