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1History of the periodic table

In the 1800's there was only two ways to categorise elements ­ by physical and chemical
properties and their relative atomic mass( mass number). They didn't know of atomic
structure, protons or electrons etc.

John Dalton
He put forward the atomic theory. He said:

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Alkali metals are shiny and soft but go a dull colour when react with oxygen

­ They all have one electron in their outer orbit which makes them very reactive as they
really want to lose this electron to gain a full outer shell, this also gives them similar

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The Halogens ­ Group 7
As you go down group 7 the halogens are:
­ Less reactive. In a reaction with a metal halogens gain an electron to gain a full outer
orbit. As you go down the group the size of the atom increases are more electron
shells are…

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Transition metals ­ between groups 2 and 3 block of metals

­ They are metals with high melting an boiling points
­ The are good conductors of heat/electricity
­ The are dense, strong and shiny
­ They are much less reactive than group one metals as they do not react…


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