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The Periodic Table (C3)

Ionic bonding: Atoms turn into ions (become charged by losing or gaining
electrons) and then the positive ions attract the negative ions.
Covalent bonding: Two atoms share a pair of electrons.

Structure of an atom
All substances are made up of atoms. All atoms have…

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An uncharged particle is either...
An atom on its own e.g: Na, Cl.
A molecule of two or more atoms bonded together e.g: Cl2, CO2.
An ion is a charged atom or group of atoms e.g: Na+, Cl-.

Forming Ions
A positive ion is formed when an atom or group…

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When a metal and a non-metal combine, electrons are transferred from one
atom to the other to form ions, each of which has a complete outer shell

Example 1:

The sodium atom has 1 electron in its outer shell which is transferred to the
chlorine atom to give them…

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A vertical column of elements in the periodic table is called a group. Elements
in the same group have similar chemical properties. This is because they have
the same number of electrons in their outer shell. This number also coincides
with the group number e.g:
Group 1 elements have…

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Methane, CH4- the carbon atom shares a pair of electrons with each hydrogen

Properties of Simple Covalently Bonded Molecules
The bond between two atoms in a simple covalently bonded molecule is very
strong. The intermolecular forces of attraction between molecules are weak.
This results in them having low melting…

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Caesium has the lowest melting and boiling points. Generally, the density
increases as we go down the group (except for potassium). Caesium has the
greatest density.

Flame Test
Lithium, sodium and potassium compounds can be recognised by the colours
they produce in a flame test. Lithium- red, Sodium- yellow, Potassium-lilac.…

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Chlorine, the most commonly used halogen, is used to sterilise water and to
make pesticides and plastics. It is extracted from sodium chloride by

As well as being used to produce chlorine, sodium chloride can also be used as...
A flavouring
A preservative.

Fluorine is the first element in…

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Some compounds conduct electricity when they are molten or in solution, but
not otherwise. In these cases, the liquid or solution must contain ions. A liquid
or solution that conducts electricity is called an electrolyte. An electrolyte can
be separated into its constituent parts by electrolysis.

When a direct current…

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with cryolite to lower its melting point. This reduces the energy needed for the

The Transition Metals
In the centre of the periodic table, between Groups 2 and 3, is a block of
metallic elements called the transition metals. This block includes iron, copper,
platinum, mercury and zinc.


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metallic nods. As the metal atoms pack together they build a structure of

Metals are able to conduct electricity because the atoms are very close
together and the electrons can move from atom to atom. At low
temperatures, some metals can become superconductors. A superconductor
has a very…


lisa linsdell

Good revision notes on the periodic table. Also contains information on isotopes and ions.

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