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The Evolutionary Theory…read more

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Bowlby's Theory
John Bowlby (1969) proposed that attachment
was important for survival. Infants are physically
helpless and need adults to feed, care for and
protect them; without such assistance they
cannot survive. Therefore, it is likely that infants
are born with the innate tendency to form an
attachment that serves to increase their chances
of survival. Since attachment is a reciprocal
process, it was also likely that adults are innately
programmed to become attached to their…read more

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infants ­ otherwise they would not respond to
their infant, and the attachment bond would not
There are 3 important features of Bowlby's
· Infants and carers are programmed to become
· As attachment is a biological process, it takes
place during a critical period of development
or not at all.
· Attachment plays a role in later development
­ monotropy and the continuity hypothesis.…read more

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Innate Programming
Bowlby suggested that attachment could be
understand within the framework of
evolutionary principles, that all psychological
and physical characteristics are naturally
selected. A characteristic is selected because it
helps those individuals who possess it to survive
and reproduce. The essential principle is that
any inherited behaviour that increases an
individual's chances of survival and reproduction
will be passed onto the next generation and…read more

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thus continues to reappear in subsequent
generations. It has been selected because of it's
usefulness. Social releasers are necessary to
ensure an interaction takes place. These are
social behaviours that elicit a caregiving reaction
from another, such as smiling, crying, cooing,
and simply looking appealing. Bowlby suggested
that these behaviours are innate in infants (and
other animals) and that responses are innate
caregivers. They are critical in the process of
forming attachments.…read more

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Lorenz (1952)
· Konrad Lorenz studied the behaviour of geese
who are likely to imprint on the first moving
object they see.
· The young follow their mother figure.
· Lorenz demonstrated this with a clutch of
gosling eggs that were divided into 2 groups.
One group was left with their natural mother;
the other eggs were kept in an incubator.…read more

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