The design/telelogical argument

contains Aquinas' teleological arument and William paleys teleological argument

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The Design or teleological argument.
This argument is an `a posteriori' argument because it is based
on external evidence.
It is a special application of the cosmological argument.
Supporters of the argument see order and purpose in the universe
as a mark of design and conclude that God must be the source of
design.
Xenophon quoted Socrates,
"With such signs of forethought in the design of living creatures, can
you doubt they are at work of choice or design?"
Design qua Regularity;
This aspect looks at design in relation to the order and
regularity. Philosophers who support the argument consider
that the order and regularity evident in the universe is the
evidence of a design at work.
Design qua purpose;
The aspect of the argument looks at design in relation
to the ways in which the parts of the universe appear
to put together for the same purpose. The universe is
compared to the man made machine in which
designer fits all the parts together for a specific
function.
Thomas Aquinas
o Aquinas wrote about the design argument in the fifth of his
five ways in "Summa Theologica"

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His argument is called `Design qua regularity `
- Aquinas claims that many entities in nature act for an `
end.
- Things in nature `act always or nearly in the same way'
o The order in nature brings about good results. Therefore, it
is beneficial order.
Aquinas concludes that beneficial order does not occur by chance.
"some intelligent being exists by whom all natural things are
directed to their end; and this being we call God"
Aquinas' argument could be put simply as:
1.…read more

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Similarly, even though human beings think for themselves and cause
things to be aimed at some goal or result, the reason why human beings
exist has to be explained, as human beings are not immortal and die.
Aquinas' key claim
Aquinas' key claim is that everything in the natural world is directed to
some goal and follows natural laws, whether intelligent or not. For
example, if you drop anything, it falls, obeying the law of gravity.…read more

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Criticisms by John Stewart mill, Hume and challenges by
Darwinism.
William Paley
The first part of his argument is design qua purpose and the
second part is design qua regularity.
Paley argued that the human eye was evidence of design and he
made a famous analogy of the watch.
Anyone finding a watch, even if they had never seen one before
would know that this instrument did not happen by chance, but
must be the result of the work of an intelligent mind.…read more

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Paley suggested that if you go for a walk and found a rock, you
could conclude that it had been there forever and you do not think
more about it.
Whereas if you found a watch, you could examine it
and find that it had moving parts which demonstrate
that.
a) The watch was for a `purpose': telling time
b) The parts `work together' or a `fit' for a purpose.…read more

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