The Cold War - the end of the cold war

part B exam

downfall of communism

USA and USSR relations at the end of the Cold War

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Cold War
Part B
The sudden ending of the Cold War in the 1980s:
Intro: In November 1982 the tensions of the Cold War seemed permanent and
if anything they had increased.
The USA had been under Reagan's presidency since 1981 and his more strident
attitude to the USSR had done little to improve international relations.
Brezhnev died and was replaced with Andropov who diminished the hope for change
as he clamped down on any action that may undermine the power of the communist
party. It was a period where fear predominated over hope.
Yet despite this seemingly permanent situation international relations were soon to
be transformed, resulting in the end of the cold war and the collapse of communist
regimes throughout eastern Europe, including the USSR.
In the words of one soviet dissident "history is like a mole. It burrows away
How did Ronald Reagan view the USSR and in what ways was the Reagan
Doctrine designed to bring about an end of the Cold War?
One of the key roles in helping undermine the Soviet Union had been the role of
Reagan and his policy of militarised counter-revolution.
Reagan's presidency appears to mark a fundamental shift in US foreign policy towards
a more aggressive, strident anti-communist approach.
Reagan's anti-communist rhetoric indicated that he was ready to pursue the
so-called second Cold War with vigour on all fronts.
Key features of Reagan's militarised counter-revolution:
1) Increasing nuclear arms:
Reagan convinced US congress to increase military spending on a scale that was
unprecedented in American History.

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The actions of the SU in Afghanistan and the decision of the USSR to deploy the
more accurate SS-20 nuclear missiles in Eastern Europe were used to support
Reagan's reasoning.
Defence spending increased by 13% in 1982 and new methods of deploying
nuclear weapons were developed, including Trident submarines.
SDI (strategic defence initiative) or `star wars' was announced in 1983. It was
central to the arms build up.…read more

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What made Reagan's approach more effective was the support he received from
Margaret Thatcher. The two leaders shaped the view of the USSR as the `evil
empire' and Thatcher was labelled by the SU as the `iron lady'. Her agreement to
allow US nuclear missiles to be based in Britain was of vital importance in putting
pressure on the Soviet Union.…read more

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Most East Germans adapted an attitude of resignation, making the most of life
under a regime they had little choice but to accept.
In Romania the leadership of Nicolae Ceausescu was firmly entrenched by the early
1980s. Despite his growing paranoia and megalomania.
His regime was one of the most repressive in Europe. He had a secret police that
ruthlessly crushed any opposition. There was a very tight system of censorship.
Government propaganda was the only source of information for the vast majority of
Romanians.…read more

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Reagan's election resulted in foreign policy changes. The soviet policy in the early
1980s grounded to a halt. No new initiative was possible from the soviet leadership
because of the nature of its leaders during this period.
A succession of old and inform leaders, sometimes referred to as a gerontocracy,
resulted in inertia in decision-making. The aged and confused Brezhnev died in 1982
and his physical incapability had prevented any change in the direction of Soviet
foreign policy.…read more

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Supporting communist regimes in Cuba,
Vietnam and afghan had become a drain on soviet resources as it spent $40 billion
annually in propping up communist governments throughout the world and this
money could be used to promote domestic reforms.
Gorbachev concentrated on promoting the interests of all people and the values of
human rights the soviet Union would no longer be an instrument for furthering the
interests of world communism.…read more

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The result of these polices led to a more critical approach towards communism, and
this encouraged reformers to push for further liberalisation. By 1988 `Gorby mania'
was sweeping much of Eastern Europe as those pushing for change called for
Gorbachev's ideas to be implemented in their own country. In 1989 a
non-communist government was elected in Poland and the floodgates opened. What
made these changes different to previous attempts to liberalise was the changed
attitude of the USSR towards Eastern Europe.…read more

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General Jaruzelski suppressed the independent workers organisation Solidarity in
1981 and declared a state of martial law.
Despite the fact that solidarity was illegal, its support remained high due to a failure
of the government to solve economic problems. This support included endorsement
of the catholic church, reinforced by further papal visits in 1983 and 1987.
By 1988 the government lifted martial law and was prepared to introduce some
reforms in response to Gorbachev's policies in the USSR.…read more

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With mass demonstrations on the streets of East German cities, the pressure for
reform was unstoppable.
The Chinese government had responded to demonstrating calling for reform using
force. The massacre of students in Tiananmen square had illustrated one methods of
dealing with the situation.
Krenz, the new East German leader, refused to sanction widespread repression and
he decided to open access across the Berlin Wall.
On November 1989 the Berlin Wall, the symbol of Cold War Europe, was dismantles
by `people power'.…read more

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By the end of 1989 every pro-soviet communist government in Eastern Europe had
To what extent was the fall of the Berlin Wall a result rather than a cause
of the end of the Cold War?
One of the most symbolic acts of the Cold War was the dismantling of the Berlin
Wall in 1989.…read more



These very detailed notes are an excellent way of enhancing knowledge of why the Cold War ended. They are well organised with clear headings and bullet points. Particularly useful for preparing for the Part B controversy question for Unit 3.


These notes are the best I have come across. They are very comprehensive yet condensed. Thank you so much for uploading this.


Donald Trump

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For other uses, see Donald Trump (disambiguation).

Donald Trump
Donald Trump August 19, 2015 (cropped).jpgTrump attending a town hall meeting atPinkerton Academy in Derry, New Hampshirein August 2015
Republican nominee for President of the United States
Running mate Chairman and President of The Trump Organization [a]
Assumed office
Preceded by
  1. Jump up^ The Trump Organization was founded as 'Elizabeth Trump & Son'. In August 1999, Trump renamed the company
    'Trump Enterprises'. However in November of that same year, the company was renamed 'The Trump Organization'.[4]
Donald Trump Signature.svg
Trump cropped.jpgThis article is part of a series
Donald Trump

The Trump Organization

Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is an American businessman, politician, television personality, author, and the presumptive nominee of the Republican Partyfor President of the United States in the 2016 election. Trump is the Chairman and President of The Trump Organization, as well as the founder of the gaming and hotel enterprise Trump Entertainment Resorts (now owned by Carl Icahn).

Trump is a son of New York City real estate developer Fred Trump and worked for his father's firm, Elizabeth Trump & Son, while attending college. After graduating in 1968 from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, he joined the company, and in 1971 was given control, later renaming it The Trump Organization. Trump has since built casinos, golf courses, hotels, a New York City neighborhood, and other real estate properties, many of which bear his name. Trump and his businesses, as well as his three marriages, have received prominent media exposure. He hosted The Apprentice, a popular NBC reality show, from 2004 to 2015.

Trump first campaigned for the U.S. presidency in 2000, and withdrew before any votes were cast, but afterwards won two Reform Party primaries. On June 16, 2015, he again announced his candidacy for president, as a Republican. Trump became known for his opposition to illegal immigration, his opposition to various free-trade agreements that he regards as unfair, his frequently non-interventionist views on foreign policy, and his proposal (in response to Islamic terrorism) to temporarily ban foreign Muslims from entering the United States until Congress can determine how to address it. Trump quickly emerged as the Republican nomination front-runner. His controversial remarks have inspired protests both supporting and opposing him.

On May 3, 2016, after winning 28 contests in the 2016 Republican presidential primaries and after the last remaining Republican rivals Ted Cruz and John Kasichsuspended their campaigns, Republican Chairman Reince Priebus declared Trump to be the presumptive nominee for the Republican Party.



Early life

Trump was born on June 14, 1946, in Queens, one of New York City's five boroughs.[5][6][7][8] He was the fourth of five children of Mary Anne (née MacLeod; 1912–2000), a homemaker and philanthropist,[9] and Fred Trump (1905–1999), a real estate developer. His mother was born at Tong on the Scottish island of Lewis and Harris.[10] In 1930, aged 18, she visited the United States and met Fred Trump. They were married in 1936 and settled in Jamaica Estates, Queens, as Fred Trump eventually became one of the city's biggest real estate developers.[9][11] Trump has one brother, Robert (born 1948), and two sisters: Maryanne (born 1937) and Elizabeth (born 1942). Maryanne is a United States federal judge on senior status for the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit.[12] Another brother, Fred Jr. (1938–1981), died of complications from alcoholism.[13]

Trump's father was born in Woodhaven, Queens, to Elizabeth (née Christ) and Frederick Trump, immigrants from Kallstadt, Germany.[14] Frederick worked as a successful Klondike Gold Rush restaurateur and possibly as a brothel keeper.[15][16] In a 1976 New York Times biographical profile,[17] and again in his 1987 book, The Art of the Deal, Trump incorrectly stated that Frederick Trump was of Swedish origin,[18][19] an assertion that Fred Trump made for many years ostensibly because "he had a lot of Jewish tenants and it wasn't a good thing to be German", according to a nephew identified as a family historian by The New York Times.[20] Donald Trump later acknowledged his German ancestry and served as grand marshal of the 1999 German-American Steuben Parade in New York City.[11]

The family had a two-story Tudor Revival home on Wareham Place in Jamaica Estates,[21] where Trump lived while attending The Kew-Forest School. At Kew-Forest, Fred Trump served as a member of the Board of Trustees. Due to behavior problems, Trump left the school at age 13 and was enrolled in the New York Military Academy(NYMA).[22] In 1983, Fred told an interviewer that Donald "was a pretty rough fellow when he was small." Trump finished eighth grade and high school at NYMA.[23] During his senior year, Trump participated in marching drills and wore a uniform, attaining the rank of captain.[24] In 2015, he told a biographer that NYMA gave him "more training militarily than a lot of the guys that go into the military."[25]

Trump attended Fordham University in the Bronx for two years. He entered the Wharton School of Business at the University of Pennsylvania, as Wharton then offered one of the few real estate studies departments in U.S. academia.[26] While there, he worked at his father's company, Elizabeth Trump & Son.[27] Trump graduated from Wharton in 1968 with a bachelor's degree in economics.[28][29]

Trump was eligible for the draft lottery during the Vietnam War.[30] He was not drafted due to four student deferments (2-S) while attending college, as well as a medical deferment (1-Y, later converted to 4-F) obtained in 1968 after his college graduation, prior to the lottery being initiated.[31] Trump was deemed fit for service after a military medical examination in 1966 and was briefly classified as 1-A by a local draft board shortly before his 1968 medical disqualification.[32] Trump attributed his medical deferment to "heel spurs" in both feet according to a 2015 biography,[25] but told reporters in 2015 that he could not immediately remember which foot (later that day he said both feet).[32] "I actually got lucky because I had a very high draft number", he told WNYW in 2011.[33] Selective Service records retrieved by The Smoking Gunwebsite from the National Archives confirm that Trump got a medical deferment and eventually received a high selective service lottery number in 1969.[33]


his a *****

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