The Cold War, and Cuban Missile Crisis (ocr)

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History ­ America (COLD WAR)
The Cold War
Wartime Alliance
During the Second World War the allies had to work together to defeat Hitler
The main allies were Britain, America, the USSR, and France
Country/ Men Lost Country/ Men Lost
Army Army
Soviets 25 million French 200,000
British 500,000 Americans 50,000
However the USA still was distrustful of the USSR because of their communist ideology

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Also the relations between the USSR and Britain were harmed in the 1930s by the policy of Appeasement ­
Stalin thought that Britain seemed happy to sit back and watch Hitler grow in power and attack the USSR
During the war, Churchill was full of respect for the Russian army saying that they `tore the heart out of the
German army'
The Soviet army did really help win the war ­ this is shown by the losses they felt
Clashes of Ideology
USSR (Communists since…read more

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They realised that Berlin was in the Soviet zone, and as Berlin was the capital of Germany and the main
trading and economic area, they agreed to split Berlin up into 4 zones
Stalin's Aims
Stalin wanted a `soviet sphere of influence' in Eastern Europe ­ so in all the countries that shared a border
with the USSR
He wanted to move his border westwards into Poland
Stalin, most importantly, wanted to crush Germany
What was going on in the minds of the leaders at…read more

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Truman saw the Soviet takeover of Eastern Europe as preparations for taking over the rest
of Europe
o The allies had tested an atomic bomb
In July 1945 the Americans' successfully tested an atomic bomb at a desert site in the USA.
At the start of the Potsdam conference Truman informed Stalin about it
Halfway through the conference Churchill was defeated in Britain and a new Prime Minister, Clement Attlee,
was put in place.…read more

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Tension between allies
In 1948 the tension between the US and the USSR had reached such a high point that they started to increase
the stock of their weapons in preparation for war
A propaganda war developed
Why did this escalate so high into a cold war?
o The USA and the USSR had emerged from the second world war as the `superpowers'
o Before the Second World War and Roosevelt, America had adopted the policy of isolationism ­ they
may not have liked communism…read more

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Truman presented this plan to Congress who refused to pass it
However when the Czech crisis happened and Jan Masaryk was killed they accepted it and made it available
over a period of 4 years
Marshall Aid
Political Aims
o Truman believed communism was born out of poverty and hardship
o If he aided countries to help them out of poverty then communism wouldn't spread
o By countries accepting this aid they also became heavily reliant on America
Economic Aims of Marshall Aid
o American…read more

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Two states were created ­ West Germany (The Federal Republic), East Germany (The German Democratic
NATO - 1949
After the Berlin Blockade, a war between the USA and the USSR seemed a real possibility
At the height of the crisis the Western powers met in Washington and set up NATO ­ an agreement to work
together to prevent conflict
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation)
What did Stalin think about NATO?
The creation of NATO seemed a threatening act to Stalin
It seemed as if…read more

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Eisenhower (the president before JFK) knew the myth wasn't true but it allowed him to get more funding to
make more weapons ­ also if he made it known then it could compromise his Russian agents who were telling
Khrushchev also knew it wasn't true but wanted his country to think it was to make him seem much more
By 1959 America had developed its own ICBM missiles and soon had far more than the Soviets
In addition to the ICBM missiles they…read more

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The Bay of Pigs
Kennedy (who became president in 1961) broke off all international relation with Cuba in 1961 ­ making
Castro worried that they were going to invade
Kennedy wanted to overthrow Castro, but rather than direct invasion, he decided it would be best to supply
arms, equipment and transport for over 1,400 anti-Castro Cuban exiles
They were sent to invade Cuba and overthrow Castro
In April 1961 the exiles landed at the Bay of Pigs and were met with 20,00 Cuban troops who…read more

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The Cuban Missile Crisis showed the countries that brinksmanship could lead to nuclear war and, in 1963, both
America and the USSR signed a Nuclear test ban treaty.…read more


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