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History ­ America (COLD WAR)

The Cold War
Wartime Alliance
During the Second World War the allies had to work together to defeat Hitler
The main allies were Britain, America, the USSR, and France
Country/ Men Lost Country/ Men Lost
Army Army

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Also the relations between the USSR and Britain were harmed in the 1930s by the policy of Appeasement ­
Stalin thought that Britain seemed happy to sit back and watch Hitler grow in power and attack the USSR
During the war, Churchill was full of respect for the Russian army…

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They realised that Berlin was in the Soviet zone, and as Berlin was the capital of Germany and the main
trading and economic area, they agreed to split Berlin up into 4 zones

Stalin's Aims
Stalin wanted a `soviet sphere of influence' in Eastern Europe ­ so in all the…

Page 4

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Truman saw the Soviet takeover of Eastern Europe as preparations for taking over the rest
of Europe
o The allies had tested an atomic bomb
In July 1945 the Americans' successfully tested an atomic bomb at a desert site in the USA.
At the start of the Potsdam conference Truman…

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Tension between allies
In 1948 the tension between the US and the USSR had reached such a high point that they started to increase
the stock of their weapons in preparation for war
A propaganda war developed

Why did this escalate so high into a cold war?
o The USA…

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Truman presented this plan to Congress who refused to pass it
However when the Czech crisis happened and Jan Masaryk was killed they accepted it and made it available
over a period of 4 years

Marshall Aid
Political Aims
o Truman believed communism was born out of poverty and hardship…

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Two states were created ­ West Germany (The Federal Republic), East Germany (The German Democratic

NATO - 1949
After the Berlin Blockade, a war between the USA and the USSR seemed a real possibility
At the height of the crisis the Western powers met in Washington and set up…

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Eisenhower (the president before JFK) knew the myth wasn't true but it allowed him to get more funding to
make more weapons ­ also if he made it known then it could compromise his Russian agents who were telling
Khrushchev also knew it wasn't true but wanted his country…

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The Bay of Pigs
Kennedy (who became president in 1961) broke off all international relation with Cuba in 1961 ­ making
Castro worried that they were going to invade
Kennedy wanted to overthrow Castro, but rather than direct invasion, he decided it would be best to supply
arms, equipment and…

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The Cuban Missile Crisis showed the countries that brinksmanship could lead to nuclear war and, in 1963, both
America and the USSR signed a Nuclear test ban treaty.


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