Pages in this set

Page 1

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SUBSTANCE
ABUSE KEY
TERMS
· ADDICTION-A compulsive behaviour where an individual is
preoccupied with a drug and maintaining its supply in order to
gain pleasure. The user is likely to be both physically and
psychologically dependent on the drug.
· PHYSICAL DEPENDENCE-The body and brain have
adapted to the presence…

Page 2

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drug. These include, insomnia, seizures, anxiety and
hallucinations.
· TOLERANCE-A state of progressively decreasing
responsiveness to a frequently used drug. This means that
the body adapts to the drug and so that more of the drug is
needed to have the same physical effects. SIEGAL did a
study on rats…

Page 3

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DIFFERENT
TYPES OF
SUBSTANCES
STIMULANTS Stimulants speed up the nervous system
by increasing the activity of dopamine, a
neurotransmitter involved in reward and pleasure.
Positive - Effects:
Increased alertness and - energy
Euphoria Negative - - - - Effects: Loss of Appetite Insomnia
Depression Brain Damage Examples: - - -…

Page 4

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Muscle Action Examples: - - - - - Xanax
Klonopin Halcion Heroin Canabis
HALLUCINOGENS Hallucinogens disrupt
communications between neurotransmitters,
particularly creating their effects by mimicking
serotonin, a neurotransmitters involved in the regulation
of mood. Positives - - Effects:
Relaxing Euphoria Negative - - - Effects:
Paranoia Psychosis Increased Heart Rate…

Page 5

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TOBACCO
AND NICOTINE
·Tobacco contains an addictive drug
called nicotine, which is a mild
stimulant.
·However, it's effects do not last long
with nicotine levels reduced by half
within 30 minutes.
·SCHACTER showed that heavy
smokers smoke more when put on low
nicotine cigarettes than when on high
nicotine cigarettes.…

Page 6

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as more low nicotine cigarettes were
needed to do this. This is known as the
NICOTINE REGULATION MODEL
and provides a biological explanation
for why many people continue to
smoke despite knowing that it will
damage their health.
·ROBINSON found that teenagers
smoke mainly because they think it
makes them…

Page 7

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BIOLOGICAL
EXPLANATIO
N OF SA
HEREDITY FACTORS
Substance abuse can be seen to run in families. Both MZ and DZ twins
have been studies to see if a characteristic is inherited, evidence for it
would be expected in both MZ twins as they share 100% of their genes.
· MCGUE-Many…

Page 8

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important as this means children are separated from their biological
families:
· CLONINGER-Looked at adopted Swedish males and their alcohol abuse
was measured, as well as the drinking habits of both their biological and
adoptive fathers. It was found that the son was more likely to abuse alcohol
if their…

Page 9

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BIOLOGICAL
EXPLANATIO
N OF SA
GENES It is
believed that certain individuals may inherit genes that mean they
metabolise ethanol (alcohol) differently in their body. Ethanol
breaks down into acetaldehyde when in the body and this is what
makes a person feel unwell when drinking. If an individual has a…

Page 10

Preview of page 10
with 10% of non alcoholic sons. 10 years later, alcoholism was
found in 43% of participants who showed the least response to
alcohol, and only 11% of those who showed the most response.
HOWEVER, this longitudinal research method is expensive and
time consuming. This study is also considered unethical as…

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Pages in this set

Page 1

Preview of page 1
SUBSTANCE
ABUSE KEY
TERMS
· ADDICTION-A compulsive behaviour where an individual is
preoccupied with a drug and maintaining its supply in order to
gain pleasure. The user is likely to be both physically and
psychologically dependent on the drug.
· PHYSICAL DEPENDENCE-The body and brain have
adapted to the presence…

Page 2

Preview of page 2
drug. These include, insomnia, seizures, anxiety and
hallucinations.
· TOLERANCE-A state of progressively decreasing
responsiveness to a frequently used drug. This means that
the body adapts to the drug and so that more of the drug is
needed to have the same physical effects. SIEGAL did a
study on rats…

Page 3

Preview of page 3
DIFFERENT
TYPES OF
SUBSTANCES
STIMULANTS Stimulants speed up the nervous system
by increasing the activity of dopamine, a
neurotransmitter involved in reward and pleasure.
Positive - Effects:
Increased alertness and - energy
Euphoria Negative - - - - Effects: Loss of Appetite Insomnia
Depression Brain Damage Examples: - - -…

Page 4

Preview of page 4
Muscle Action Examples: - - - - - Xanax
Klonopin Halcion Heroin Canabis
HALLUCINOGENS Hallucinogens disrupt
communications between neurotransmitters,
particularly creating their effects by mimicking
serotonin, a neurotransmitters involved in the regulation
of mood. Positives - - Effects:
Relaxing Euphoria Negative - - - Effects:
Paranoia Psychosis Increased Heart Rate…

Page 5

Preview of page 5
TOBACCO
AND NICOTINE
·Tobacco contains an addictive drug
called nicotine, which is a mild
stimulant.
·However, it's effects do not last long
with nicotine levels reduced by half
within 30 minutes.
·SCHACTER showed that heavy
smokers smoke more when put on low
nicotine cigarettes than when on high
nicotine cigarettes.…

Page 6

Preview of page 6
as more low nicotine cigarettes were
needed to do this. This is known as the
NICOTINE REGULATION MODEL
and provides a biological explanation
for why many people continue to
smoke despite knowing that it will
damage their health.
·ROBINSON found that teenagers
smoke mainly because they think it
makes them…

Page 7

Preview of page 7
BIOLOGICAL
EXPLANATIO
N OF SA
HEREDITY FACTORS
Substance abuse can be seen to run in families. Both MZ and DZ twins
have been studies to see if a characteristic is inherited, evidence for it
would be expected in both MZ twins as they share 100% of their genes.
· MCGUE-Many…

Page 8

Preview of page 8
important as this means children are separated from their biological
families:
· CLONINGER-Looked at adopted Swedish males and their alcohol abuse
was measured, as well as the drinking habits of both their biological and
adoptive fathers. It was found that the son was more likely to abuse alcohol
if their…

Page 9

Preview of page 9
BIOLOGICAL
EXPLANATIO
N OF SA
GENES It is
believed that certain individuals may inherit genes that mean they
metabolise ethanol (alcohol) differently in their body. Ethanol
breaks down into acetaldehyde when in the body and this is what
makes a person feel unwell when drinking. If an individual has a…

Page 10

Preview of page 10
with 10% of non alcoholic sons. 10 years later, alcoholism was
found in 43% of participants who showed the least response to
alcohol, and only 11% of those who showed the most response.
HOWEVER, this longitudinal research method is expensive and
time consuming. This study is also considered unethical as…

Comments

No comments have yet been made