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SUBSTANCE ABUSE KEY TERMS
· ADDICTION-A compulsive behaviour where an individual is preoccupied with a drug and
maintaining its supply in order to gain pleasure. The user is likely to be both physically and
psychologically dependent on the drug.
· PHYSICAL DEPENDENCE-The body and brain have adapted to the presence…

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DIFFERENT TYPES OF SUBSTANCES
STIMULANTS DEPRESSANTS HALLUCINOGENS
Stimulants speed up the Depressants slow down the Hallucinogens disrupt
nervous system by nervous system by increasing communications between
increasing the activity of the effectiveness of GABA, a neurotransmitters,
dopamine, a neurotransmitter which particularly creating their
neurotransmitter involved in regulates neuron activity in…

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TOBACCO AND NICOTINE
·Tobacco contains an addictive drug called nicotine, which is a mild
stimulant.
·However, it's effects do not last long with nicotine levels reduced
by half within 30 minutes.
·SCHACTER showed that heavy smokers smoke more when put
on low nicotine cigarettes than when on high nicotine cigarettes.…

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BIOLOGICAL EXPLANATION OF SA
HEREDITY FACTORS
Substance abuse can be seen to run in families. Both MZ and DZ twins have been studies to see if a characteristic is inherited,
evidence for it would be expected in both MZ twins as they share 100% of their genes.
· MCGUE-Many pairs…

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BIOLOGICAL EXPLANATION OF SA
GENES
It is believed that certain individuals may inherit genes that mean they metabolise ethanol (alcohol) differently in
their body. Ethanol breaks down into acetaldehyde when in the body and this is what makes a person feel unwell
when drinking. If an individual has a slower…

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PERSONALITY EXPLANATION OF SA
· Some personality types seem to be more associated with substance abuse than others, for
example; impulsive, risk takers, low self esteem, and lack of ambition.
· Flory found it's linked with extroversion (confident, outgoing, easily bored)
· McAdams found that people with low conscientiousness (taking…

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FREUD EXPLANATION OF SA
Freud argued that those who abuse substances have strong dependency
need which can be traced back to early childhood. If parents fail to
satisfy their children's needs, the child will grow up to be overly reliant on
overs. This fixation occurs in the oral stage which…

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TREATMENT: AVERSION THERAPY
Uses behavioural principles of classical conditioning . Alcoholics and smokers can be conditioned by pairing an abused
substance with something unpleasant. In most cases, the substance is paired with an emetic (a substance that causes
rapid nausea and vomiting). Eventually, the patient has a conditioned response where…

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TREATMENT:COVERT SENSITISATION
(ADD ON TO AVERSION THERAPY)
Covert sensitisation refers to learning to abstain from a substance due to
being able to describe and imagine the deeply unpleasant effects that
occurred from the treatment. A patient is encouraged to imagine the
consequence of taking the substance and recall it whenever…

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TREATMENT:SELF MANAGEMENT-
STRATEGIES
Self management-strategies allow the person to take more responsibility and control over their treatment and recovery.
They normally involve cognitive, behavioural, and humanistic approaches and are commonly used in the UK for substance abuse.
These self management-strategies are based on theoretical models of behavioural change. These have…

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