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Katie Overington




Structure and Bonding II

Covalent bond: shared pair of electrons from each donor atom
Double covalent bond: 2pairs of electron are shared e.g. CO2
Triple covalent bond: 3 pairs of electrons are shared e.g. N2

Cl2 SO2 N2




Expanded octet

Dative covalent bond: shared pair of electrons both…

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Katie Overington






3. P + P e.g. CC



Pi bond:




Shapes of covalent molecules:
Rule 1:

VSEPR Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory:
The shape of a molecule or ion is caused by repulsion between the bond pairs of
electron and lone pair of electrons that surround the central atom.…

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Katie Overington





Properties of covalent substances:
Electricity conductivity: V. poor as no free electrons
Solubility in water: not soluble unless strong polar bonds e.g. ethanol
Solubility in non polar solvent: tend to be soluble
Melting points: Simple covalent: low as weak bonds
Giant covalent: high as strong bonds

Electronegitivity: is…

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