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Starch
Polysaccharide
Occurs in large amounts in seeds and storage in plant organs
Made of alpha glucose monosaccharides linked by glycosidic bonds formed by
condensation reactions
Made of Amylose (An unbranched chain) and amylopectin (branched chain)…read more

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Glycogen- `animal starch'
Stored in small granules mainly in liver and muscles.
Made up of smaller chains than starch and is more readily hydrolysed into
alpha glucose.
Highly branched- increases SA for enzymes to attach so it is more readily
hydrolysed.…read more

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Starch and glucose- good for energy
storage as.............
They're insoluble and so they do not draw water into cells by osmosis
Hard for them to diffuse out of cells
Compact- stored in small spaces
Hydrolysed to form alpha-glucose which is easily transported and readily used
in respiration.…read more

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Cellulose
Beta glucose
Straight chains
Not coiled like starch- unbranched chains
Run parallel to one another allowing hydrogen bonds to form cross-linkages between
adjacent chains
Molecules grouped to form microfibrils which are arranged into fibres.
Used for
Cell walls- the hydrogen bonds formed between straight adjacent chains make the cell
wall rigid.
Prevents cell bursting as water enters by osmosis by exerting an inward pressure that stops
any further influx of water
Needed to maintain stem and leaves in turgid state for maximum SA for photosynthesis…read more

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Intergranal lamella: join adjacent
thylakoids
Chloroplasts Thykaloids: contain photosynthetic
pigment
Inner membrane with transport
proteins: Controls molecules travelling
between the cells cytoplasm and stroma
Grana: Large SA for photosynthetic
pigments, enzymes are needed in LDS
Photosynthetic pigment: arranged in
photosystems to allow for maximum
absorption of light
Proteins embedded into grana: holds
photosystems in place
Fluid-filled stroma: Contains enzymes
needed for LIS
Grana surrounded by stroma: Products
made in LDS in grana can pass into
stroma to be used in LIS
Chloroplast DNA and ribosomes: Can
make some proteins needed for
photosynthesis.…read more

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