Schizophrenia notes on classification, diagnosis, reliability and validity

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  • Created on: 06-09-13 14:36
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`Split mind'
Schizophrenia is a form of psychotic mental disorder when people lose touch with reality. The patient
believes things which aren't true and have hallucinations when they see or hear things when there is no
external stimulus to cause these. Schizophrenia is most common in teenage boys; whereas in women it is
more common in their late 40s. 1% of the world-wide population has been diagnosed with schizophrenia.
Schizophrenics are perceived as violent but this is mainly expressed through the media. Deifenbach (1997)
found that mentally ill people were 10x more likely to be portrayed as violent but only about 8% will commit
violence in a year which is only slightly more than sane people. This is less in depressed people or people
with personality disorders.
Fourth edition of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
Most widely used diagnostic tool.
List of mental disorders and diagnostic categories.
To be diagnosed with schizophrenia in the DSM you must have two or more positive/negative
symptoms for a minimum of 6 months unless you are having `bizarre' delusions.
Organic causes and other mood disorders must be eliminated before a diagnosis can be made.
International Statistical classification of diseases.
10th edition
Produced by the WHO (World Health Organisation)
Mainly European
Positive ­ exaggerated behaviour
Hallucinations ­ Perceptual
Smell or taste things
Delusions ­ Cognitive symptoms
Believing things that aren't true such as that they are more important than everyone else, or
that they are being followed my spy's.
Language impairments ­ Cognitive symptoms
Incoherent and irrelevant speech.
Negative ­ lack of emotional response
Depressive symptoms ­ Affective symptoms
Lack of interest and energy

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Lack of emotions ­ Affective symptoms
Not reacting, emotional blocking
Inappropriate emotions ­ Affective symptoms
Such as laughing at bad news
Stereotyped behaviours ­ Behavioural symptoms
Repeating actions which are strange and purposeless
Psychomotor disturbance ­ Behavioural Symptoms
Not being able to control your muscles
Catatonic stupor ­ Behavioural symptoms
Lying rigidly and not moving for long periods of time and don't seem aware
Reliability Research Critique
Cultural differences Copeland et al: gave description of
a patient to 134 US and 194…read more

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Prognosis Harrison et al : suggests that Malmberg et al : suggests that
social ,skills, academic gender may influence prognosis.
achievement and
family tolerance may influence Rule of thirds
Cultural differences Davison & Neale: Asian cultures Arabic cultures it is normal for
reward if no expression is shown. outpouring of public emotion.
Crossover disorders Ellason & Ross: DID patients Schnider: distinguishing symptoms
often have more schizophrenic from other mental illnesses, these first
symptoms than those diagnosed rank symptoms are more reliable
with schizophrenia.…read more


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