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SECTION 3: Peace and Conflict…read more

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· An armed conflict between two or more nations
· Causes
­ Self defence if your country is being attacked
­ Economics or natural resources
­ Fear
­ Nation pride
­ Fighting against aggression and injustice
­ Long-standing racial or ethnic hatred
­ Protecting people from persecution and exploitation
· Every war is unique
· Usually a combination of factors…read more

Slide 3

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The War in Darfur
· Darfur, 2003-2007 · Factor 2: Long-standing ethnic hatred
­ Sudanese army, funded by the ­ Traditional hatred, long-standing
Sudanese government and Arab disputes
military group- Janjaweed ­ Divided on religious and ethnic lines
­ Sudan Liberation Movement and the ­ The Sudanese government has been
Justice and Equality Movement accused of oppressing and persecuting
­ Over 2.5 million people have been non-Arabs
affected · Factor 3: National
­ The Sudanese government has been ­ Part of a wider conflict in Sudan as a
accused of mass killings and violations whole
of human rights ­ South wants to be made an
independent country
· Factor 1 : economic/environment
· Fact 4: Remote location
­ Years of drought-food and water ­ This part is very remote
resources scarce
­ Poor transport links and
­ Nomadic people and livestock have communications
been forced to move south ­ When problems started, it took a long
­ Farmers have been growing cash time for others to find out and do
crops, further reducing something about it…read more

Slide 4

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The United Nations
International organisation ­ Trade restrictions
· 192 member nations
· The UN can arrange for economic
· Prevent wars
sanctions to be applied
­ Conflict resolution
· Certain goods decided by the UN
­ Reconciliation
cannot be sold to the aggressive
· Fight against poverty
· Campaign for human rights
· The country must then start talking
· Preventing and solving conflict is one of the main
aims-variety of methods: and resolving dispute so that sanctions
can be lifted
­ Arms control and disarmament
· The UN has negotiated several treaties ­ Peacekeeping forces
between countries · Members of the UN can vote for
· Reduce the number and type of weapons soldiers to be sent to an area of
· Especially mass destruction conflict
­ Organising peace talks · Prevent violence or stop it getting
· The UN negotiates with different parties worse
within a conflict · Protect innocent civilians
· Arranges for the leaders of each side to · Maintain water, food and medical
meet and discus issues face to face
­ Military action
· Neutral
· UN has the power to use armed force
against aggressive countries · Only use their weapons in self defence
· Member states have to vote for it to · Mixed fortunes in attempts to secure world
happen peace…read more

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Case Study: The UN in Darfur
· Negotiation · Threat of sanctions
­ Several months after fighting broke ­ Several individual countries have
out in march 2003 stopped trading with Sudan
­ UN requests for negotiation between ­ As of march 2009, the UN did not
the anti-government groups in the have a resolution in place for
Darfur region and the Sudanese
governments began with little success economic sanctions against Sudan
­ Breakthrough in may 2004 ­ They have not reached the required
­ Sudanese government met with the number of votes for it to happen
UN secretary general ­ Several countries rely on trade from
­ Joint agreement between the UN and the Sudan and would not vote for
the Sudanese government to stop sanctions
conflict ­ Some argue that if sanctions were put
­ The government agreed to resume in place, the Sudanese government
peace talks with the anti-government would stop negotiating and may
groups and disarm the Janjaweed prevent humanitarian aid getting
­ It did not do either through to the people who need it
­ Since then, various peace deals have ­ The UN has threatened sanctions
been signed and then broken
­ The UN have been continually ­ Proved effective in winning several
successful in managing to get both concessions from the Sudanese
sides to the negotiating table government…read more

Slide 6

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The UN in Darfur Cont.
· Peacekeeping forces · Success or failure?
­ A small peacekeeping force (300) ­ The UN has managed to stem
from the African union was the number and frequency of
allowed into Darfur, august 2004
­ In June 2007, after constant
negotiation between member states ­ Has organised peace talks
of the UN (including the Sudan) between the warring parties
· A combined peacekeeping ­ Many would argue: the need
force from the UN and the for consensus among so many
African union of 26,000 troops
and police officers would be young people has limited the
sent into Darfur UN's ability to bring peace to
· As of march 2009, only 15,000 Darfur so far
are in place ­ Meaning that the young people
· Some success in protecting fighting need to agree to stop
killing each other
· They themselves have come
under attack from both sides
on several occasions…read more

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