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The temperature of the Earth has been
· Effects
getting warmer ­ Ice caps/sheets melting
­ Climate change/ global warming · Warmer water expands
­ (since the 20th century) · Causes rising sea level
· Different opinions about why · Many places are at risk of
­ Humans
­ Heat
· Burning fossil fuels (oil, coal and
· Some places get hotter
natural gas)
· There will be more drought
· Increases the levels of greenhouse
· Other places getting hotter will
gases (CO2) have more rain and flooding
· Stops some of the Sun's energy · Both may lead to shortages of
escaping food and famine
· The temperature of the Earth rises ­ Extreme weather events
­ Natural event · Hurricanes, flash floods
· Climate has always been changing · Will increase
· This is another change ­ Extinction
· Other evidence is not convincing · Some animals and plants
· They will not be able to adapt to
climate…read more

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Global Warming Cont.
· What can we do? ­ Many industrial countries have agreed
­ Reduce amount of energy being used to targets...
­ Increase the use of `clean' fuels to · ...By which they must reduce
generate energy their greenhouse gas emissions
· Wind power · Still a long way to go
· Does not produce greenhouse gases · (Before all countries agree on the
causes and solutions of climate
· Action by individuals change)
­ Turning off electrical appliances when
they are not in use
· Action by scientists
­ Scientific research is essential
­ Walking instead of car
· Causes and consequences
­ Supporting environmental charities
· The more we understand about
· Greenpeace
why, the more we will be able to
· Lobby governments do something about it
· Fund scientific research ­ (And) research into solutions
· Action by governments and · Alternative energy source
international organisations · Ways to reduce the amount of
­ Setting laws greenhouse gases in the
· That factories have to keep in atmosphere
relation to the gases they have to ­ BUT research is expensive
produce…read more

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The contamination of the environment · Air pollution
· Waste ­ When substances or chemicals affect the
­ Increased technology results in more natural balance of the air
waste ­ E.g. sulphur dioxide and nitrous oxides
­ Most waste is not biodegradable · From coal-fired power stations
­ Takes up space · Leads to acid rain
­ Spreads disease ­ Harms soil, water, all forms of life
­ Releases dangerous chemicals into the and buildings
environment ­ Smog
· Land pollution · (industrial fog)
­ E.g. dropping litter ­ Breathing problems for humans and animals
­ Industrial levels · Water pollution
· Serious ­ The contamination of rivers etc
· Radioactive waste ­ By chemicals or other matter that affects the
­ Health problems water's quality
­ Lowers soil fertility ­ E.g. eutrophication
­ Deforestation · When sewage and fertiliser make water
plants grow
­ Mining
· They get broken down by bacteria when
­ Poor growth
they die
­ Loss of wild habitats
· The oxygen gets used up by the bacteria
­ Soil erosion feeding
­ Desertification · The fish die
­ Water pollution…read more

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Solutions to Pollution and the Ozone Layer
· Create less waste · The ozone layer
­ Less waste=less pollution ­ Scientists discovered there was a
­ Individuals, businesses and hole in the ozone layer
government · Above the Antarctic
· Recycling · In 1985
· Less packaging
­ Part of the atmosphere
· Government action · Prevents too much UV radiation
­ Developed nations (e.g. UK) entering the Earth
­ Have strict anti-pollution laws · UV causes health cancer
­ Impose severe penalties · Harms crops
· Alternative energy sources ­ CFCs were causing ozone layer to
­ Greater energy efficiency deplete
­ Using cleaner fuels that do not ­ Montreal Protocol
produce waste · International
­ = less pollution · 1987
· Alternative manufacturing methods · Limited the use of CFCs
­ Scientists are researching ­ Levels of CFCs in atmosphere
­ Manufacturing in ways that gradually decreased
· Create less waste or ­ The ozone layer is beginning to
· Get rid of waste more effectively repair itself…read more

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Natural Resources
· Two types · Provided by nature
­ Renewable · Can be used by humans
· Can replace themselves or by · What happens when they run out?
humans ­ Enormous impact and
· Wind, solar wave, water power, consequences on humans and life
fertile land, wood · What can we do?
· Some need managing to be ­ Conservation
renewable · Preserving the Earth's natural
· Most are `clean' energy, do not resources
cause pollution · Looking after the environment so
· Many are only effective in certain future generations can enjoy it
places · More use of renewable resources
· Can be more expensive · Invest in developing other
renewable sources of energy
­ Non-renewable ­ Not wasting electricity
· Cannot be replaced
­ Walking, cycling and using public
· Coal, oil, gas, minerals and rocks transport instead of the car
· Some can be recycled ­ Buying and using products made
· For transport, electricity, buildings from renewable resources
and products…read more

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