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Attrition
-
Pebbles
bashing
into
one
another
becoming
more
rounded
and
smaller
as
they
move
down
the
river.
Changes
in
Characteristics
Upper
Course
Features
Discharge
-
This
is
the
amount
of
water
passing
a
specific
point
at
a
given
time.
It
si
measured
in
cubic
metres
per
second.
The
discharge
depends
of
the
rivers
volume
and
velocity.
Velocity
-
This
is
determined
by
the
amount
of
water
which
is
touching
the
rivers
bank
and
bed.…read more

Page 3

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Page 4

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Formation
of
Ox-bow
Lakes
Ox-bow
Lake
-
Horse
shoe
shaped
lake
that
is
a
cut
off
meander.
1.
The
erosion
on
the
outside
of
the
meander
causes
the
arms
of
the
lake
to
get
closer
together
and
the
neck
to
get
smaller.
2.
Eventually
the
river
breaks
through
and
the
meander
is
cut
off
as
the
river
can
run
straight.
3.
The
river
deposits
on
the
outside
beds,
this
deposition
builds
up
until
the
meander
is
completely
cut
off
and
forming
an
Ox-bow
lake.…read more

Page 5

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Page 6

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Floodplains
-
Flat
area
of
land
either
side
of
a
river
channel
in
the
Lower
course.
Usually
used
a
lot
for
agricultural
use
or
building
because
it
is
so
flat.
If
a
river
floods,
water
will
spill
out
over
the
surrounding
land,
the
floodplain.
Friction
will
be
increased
and
velocity
decreased.
Fine
silt
and
other
material
carried
will
be
deposited.
Levee
banks
-
When
the
river
flood
the
coarsest,
heaviest
material
is
deposited
first
making
a
natural
embankment,
a
levee.…read more

Page 7

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Flooding
Causes
of
Flooding
Human
causes
Physical
causes
Ploughing
up
and
down
slopes
instead
of
Impermeable
rock
means
that
rainwater
around
them
channels
the
rainwater
to
the
cannot
soak
into
the
rocks
and
therefore
river
faster.
flows
more
quickly
to
the
river.
Dams
may
burst
which
will
cause
excess
If
there
is
a
sudden
rise
in
temperature,
a
water
in
river
channels
and
flooding
in
large
rapid
thaw
can
happen,
Rivers
are
unable
to
areas.
cope
with
the
amount
of
water.…read more

Page 8

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DEFRA
(
The
Department
of
Environmental,
Food
and
Rural
Affairs
-
Holds
responsibility
for
deciding
which
areas
are
at
risk
of
flooding
and
where
to
spend
on
money
ondefences.
Planning
and
Building
Before
2012
to
build
on
floodplains
you
had
to
get
planning
permission
and
get
a
Flood
Risk
Assessment
done.
From
2010,
Laws
changed
so
homes
at
risk
of
flooding
must
have
both
done
so
that
are
flood
resistant/resilient.
It
costs
£3000-
£10000
to
protect
properties
from
the
effects
of
flooding.…read more

Page 9

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Extremely
expensive
Dams
Dams
are
often
built
along
-
Water
is
stored
in
a
-
Expensive
the
course
of
a
river
in
reservoir
which
can
be
-
Sediment
is
often
order
to
control
the
amount
used
to
generate
trapped
leading
to
of
discharge.
Water
is
held
hydroelectricity.
erosion
further
back
and
released
in
a
downstream
controlled
way.…read more

Page 10

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Global
Effects
of
Flooding
Nepal
2008
Flooding
began
when
a
dam
burst
on
the
Saptakoshi
River
in
Nepal.
Nearly
1,000
homes
were
destroyed,
power
supplies
and
trasport
were
severely
affected.
Illnesses
such
as
diarrhoea
and
pneumonia
hit
and
5000
people
were
left
homeless
with
4000
forced
to
live
in
government
run
camps.
Sudan
2007
3.5
million
people
were
at
risk
from
water
borne
diseases
such
as
cholera
as
the
River
Nile
flooded:
89
people
were
killed
and
73,000
homes
were
destroyed.…read more

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