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Relationships
Reward/Need satisfaction theory Byrne and Clore, 1970
Mutual attraction tends to occur when each person meets the needs of their partner.
Maybe because we personally lack these characteristics i.e. attraction or financial
security.
Rewards and punishments the idea of positive/ negative stimuli making us
happy/unhappy carries on to people.…

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Attitude Research suggests that a process of attitude alignment often occurs, with
partners modifying their attitudes so that they become more similar. In order for the
relationship to develop, one or both of the partners must adapt their behaviour.

Evaluation of similarity theory
Rosenbaum (1986) suggested that dissimilarity rather than…

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another person's emotional problems) it is also assumed that if a relationship is to
continue people expect the other person to reward them as much as they reward the
other person.

Thibaut & Kelley argued that longterm friendships and relationships go through four stages
1. Sampling ­ The costs and…

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If the relationship is unfair or inadequate, it provides distress, especially in the
disadvantaged person.
The disadvantaged person will try hard to make the relationship more equitable,
particularly when it is very inequitable.

Research Evidence
Hatfield et al asked newlyweds to indicate the extent to which they felt that they…

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2. Dyadic phase; confrontation to other partner, characterized by an argument
3. Social phase; up to this stage, problems generally kept private. This stage is where
the problems are shared into the social network
4. Grave-dressing phase; relationship ended, this is ex partners share experiences and
their own account of…

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Short term mating preferences
Trivers (1972) argued that because of parental investment, the sex that invests greater
resources in offspring will evolve to be the choosier sex in selecting a mate. In contrast, the
sex that invests fewer resources in offspring will evolve to be more competitive with its own…

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Parental investment Trivers (1972)

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Parental Investment mean the amount of time, energy, and effort put into
help the reproduction and survival of a child/offspring.
Amount of investment needed overall, supply from reproductive organs,
reproductive life span, amount of parental investment needed after
conception, during postnatal phase, the best chance of reproductive
success for males/females.…

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When offspring are young, the parents tend to put more attention into that sibling
than the rest. When the children then become older, however, parents can maximise
their own reproductive fitness by directing their limited resources towards more
vulnerable offspring and away from their older children. Parent offspring conflict is…

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relationships with boys and are more likely to report care and security in their
relationships with other girls.
Erwin (1993) found that boys' relationships tend to be more competitive, a fact
emphasising competitive sport that men tend to undertake. In contrast girls tend to
engage in cooperative and sharing activities.…

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