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METHODS
LABORATORY FIELD NATURAL
WHAT IS IT? Researcher directly Researcher directly Researcher takes
manipulates IV to see its manipulates IV to see its advantage of a naturally
effect on DV. Highly effect on DV. Takes occurring event to see
controlled conditions. place in natural setting. its effect on DV (IV not
directly manipulated)
STRENGTHS High level of control Higher ecological validity Useful where it would be
Replicable than lab impossible or unethical
Can infer cause and Reduction in participant to manipulate the IV.…read more

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SELF REPORT TECHNIQUES
INTERVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE
Researcher asks participants A set of questions used to collect
questions directly face to face. data from a large sample of
Can be structured or unstructured. participants. Can be given face to
face or via post, phone or
internet.
Structured: data analysis is Can reach a large sample of
STRENGTHS straight forward, less risk of people relatively quickly and
investigator effects, less training cheaply. Can collect large
needed, interviewer available to amounts of data. Time efficient.
clarify any ambiguity.…read more

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EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
REPEATED INDEPENDENT MATCHED
MEASURES GROUPS PAIRS
Same participants in each Different participants in Participants
WHAT IS IT? condition each condition matched on key
variables
Holds individual No order effects. Reduced No order effects.
STRENGTHS differences constant so likelihood of demand Reduced effects
controls for them. Needs characteristics. Can use of i.differences.
fewer ppts same set of stimulus in Can use same
both conditions. stimulus.
Order effects. Increased Individual differences can Difficult to decide
WEAKNESSES chance of demand affect result.…read more

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ETHICAL ISSUES
DECEPTION INFORMED PROTECTION
CONSENT FROM HARM
Participants may be If participants are not Participants have a right
WHY IS IT AN misled about the nature, given all of the facts to be protected from
ISSUE? it prevents them from before agreeing, they any physical or
making an informed may find themselves emotional harm. The
decision about taking taking part against participants should
part. their wishes. It might leave the study in the
make people same state as they
distrustful of entered it.…read more

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CORRELATIONAL ANALYSIS
WHAT IS IT? Technique for analysing data by measuring the strength of the
relationship between two variables. It will either show a positive
correlation, a negative correlation or no correlation.
STRENGTHS Can establish the strength of a relationship between two variables
and measure it precisely. Allows researchers to investigate things that
could not be manipulated for ethical or practical reasons.
WEAKNESSES Cannot establish cause and effect. Can only measure linear
relationships (i.e. clear positive or negative correlations). Does not
detect curvilinear relationships.…read more

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KEY WORD DEFINITION
Observer bias Describes the effect on results caused by the fact that an
observer can have their own interpretation of a piece of
behaviour that is different from others.
Inter-rater reliability Is the extent to which two observers agree in their rating of
their same behaviour. It is usually measured by taking both sets
of ratings and comparing them using correlational analysis.
Behavioural category Is a specific type of behaviour that is defined before the start
of the study.…read more

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