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Slide 1

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"Behaviour aimed at causing harm or
pain"…read more

Slide 2

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Theories of aggression:
· Social learning theory ­ aggressive behaviour
is learned through direct experience or by
vicarious experience.
· Deindividuation ­ "a process whereby people
lose their sense of socialised individual
identity and engage in unsocialised, often
anti-social behaviour" (Hogg and Vaughan,
2008)…read more

Slide 3

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· An example of people learning aggression
through direct experience (operant
condition/direct reinforcement) could be
when a child pushes another child and as a
result gets something they want. The action is
reinforced and is more likely to occur in
similar situations in the future.
· People learn aggression through vicarious
experience (imitation of a model/indirect
reinforcement) by observing it around them ­
particularly from significant others.…read more

Slide 4

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Factors that suggest the likelihood of
someone behaving aggressively:
1. Social learning ­ their previous experiences
of aggressive behaviour ­ both their own and
2. The degree to which their aggressive
behaviour was successful in the past
3. The current likelihood of their aggressive
behaviour being rewarded or punished
4. Cognitive, social and environmental factors
that are operating at the same time.…read more

Slide 5

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Explain inconsistencies Bandura
Explains why people act Individual differences
Supports the idea of SLT
differently in other SLT can explain why some
with his research. Three
situations. Whilst people are aggressive and groups of children
someone may be why some people aren't. watched a film where an
aggressive home they adult kicked a bobo doll
may also be meek and Social learning Vs. whilst saying aggressive
shy at work. This shows Biology comments. For one group
how they have learnt Biology explains the film ended here, for
how to act differently in another the film
the two different aggression to be
continued to see the
situations. caused by adult rewarded whilst the
neurotransmitters, last group saw the adult
Treatment genes and hormones. punished. The children
programmes were then observed
However, SLT theory playing with the bobo
Useful in influencing
treatment. If someone points towards doll. Condition 1 and 2
cultures that have no children showed
has learnt their
aggressive acts. Children
aggressive behaviour it aggression within it (i. in condition 2 behaved
is possible to unlearn it. e. Amish in the USA) most aggressively.…read more

Slide 6

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Losing sense of individual identity leads to
deindividuation. Individuals are seen as normally
refraining from aggressive acts because they are
identifiable. However, in situations such as
crowds, personal responsibility is less perceived
and aggressive behaviour occurs. Deindividuation
causes people to follow group norms instead of
personal norms and this sometimes leads to
aggression. Examples:
· Football crowds
· Nazi's
· Riots.…read more

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