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Biology Unit 4
Revision Notes

Topic 6: Infection, Immunity and Forensics
3. Explain the process of protein synthesis
(transcription, translation, messenger RNA, transfer
RNA, ribosomes and the role of start and stop codons)
and explain the roles of the template (antisense) DNA
strand in transcription, codons on messenger RNA,

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Biology Unit 4
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Once in the cytoplasm, the mRNA attaches to a ribosome. tRNAs carrying specific amino acids bind to
the complementary codons on the mRNA. A peptide bond is formed between neighbouring amino
acids to produce a polypeptide.

Molecules of tRNA carry individual amino acids to…

Page 3

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Biology Unit 4
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Ribosomes ­ Cell organelle that is the site of protein synthesis
Transcription ­ production of mRNA from a DNA strand
Translation ­ The conversion of the information in mRNA into a polypeptide or protein
mRNA ­ RNA that carries information from the DNA in…


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