Population

Population, Population management/graphs, dependancy ratios, birth rate and other population defenitions. 

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Geography Revision
Population
Over time the world population has been expanding rapidly; reasons for this global
population increase are:
1. Industrial revolution, changes took place which meant that people began to love
longer, for example good transport links were made for food imported into cities
2. Agricultural revolution (MEDCs), Fertilisers, chemicals and machinery replace manual
labour and so food is produced in mass which in turn makes it more affordable
3. Green revolution, including mechanisation and the equal distribution of land, GM
crops like `miracle rice' created which make 5x the normal yield ­ less famine and so
less death
4. Sanitation and Medication, cleaner lifestyles and better ways of treating illness
means that it is much harder for disease to spread ­ stops premature death and life
expectancy goes up
5. Lack of Contraception, religion and its un-affordable in LEDCs or they are often not
well educated about it ­ most population growth is in poorer countries
MEDC/LEDC population contrast
Since 1900 there has been a huge population growth, mainly down to LEDCs. They have a
lack of education and often cannot afford contraception. They often have many children to
compensate for those that may die young or so they can work and bring more money into
the family. As well as the reasons listed above there are many factors which can cause an
LEDC to become overpopulated and once this has happened the cycle becomes endless.
Becoming overpopulated:
Over farming/Grazing of animals -> Desertification
This means less jobs and money
Birth rate rises so that children can work for their parents
There are less resources for each individual
Droughts often escalate this
Sometimes resources are destroyed by war and they cannot afford to replace them
Sometimes NICs can become overpopulated too; although healthcare, transport etc
are present the number of people moving here outweigh this
MEDCs may start to decrease in population. This is due to female emancipation (more
women working and not having children), education, contraception and others factors which
means that having children is not necessary.

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Are we evenly spread?
The world is generally not evenly spread as there are different birth and death rates (The
average number of live births or deaths per thousand people per year. This means that all
countries have different natural change, natural increase or natural decrease too. This is the
difference between birth and death rate in a country and which is lower or higher.…read more

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Late Expanding ­ Population is increasing slowly; LEDCs like India + Mexico. The death
rate is falling as medical care etc continues to improve. Birth rate is falling as families
no longer need children to work for them, Birth control is available and Children aren't
dying young. Female emancipation has begun
4. Low Stationary ­ The death rate remains low and people are able to family plan using
birth control so the birth rate is low (more education, technology about it).…read more

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Population Graphs
Thomas Malthus ­ The `pessimistic' view
He feared that the population would
increase faster than resources and it
would cause `checks on the population'
e.g. war, diseases, restraint on having
children
Ester Boserup ­ The `optimistic' view
She thought that more people would
lead to more innovation and so more
ways to sustain resources.
These are two very contrasting ideas but
they are both right and wrong depending
on what countries we base them on.…read more

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Dependants are those in a population who are too old or too young to work so they depend
on other people to support them. The dependency ratio is an age-population ratio of those
typically not in the labour force (the dependent part) and those typically in the labour force
(the productive part). It is used to measure the pressure on productive population.
The answer of the dependency ratio tells us that for every 100 economically active people
there are X dependants.…read more

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They need healthcare which the government is
unable to pay.
Population Management
Pro-nationalist policies ­ Governments encourage people to have children, usually by
financial means. Under populated countries use them to try and make better use of their
resources.
Anti-natalist policies ­ Government use these to reduce the number of children born by
financial penalties. They fear that in the near future they will not have enough resources for
the people they have.…read more

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