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Slide 1

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Addition polymers are formed from Alkenes
· The double bond can open up to join two alkene molecules together in a chain
· It is a free radical addition reaction
· Each individual alkene in the chain is called a monomer
· Poly (ethanol) (Polyvinyl alcohol or PVA) is a water soluble polymer formed as below
H H H
H
C C C C
H OH
H OH
· It is used for making water soluble hospital laundry bags or washing tablets. The bags break
down in water above 40°C and the laundry/washing fluid is released. It allows the laundry to
be contained to avoid the spread of disease makes using the washing fluid easy and mess
free
· Poly (ethanol) is water soluble due to the OH groups along the chain, these can H-bond to
water allowing the polymer to dissolve…read more

Slide 2

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This type of polymerisation involves two different types of monomer each with two
functional groups that will react to lose a small molecule (water) and result in a polymer
chain
· These include polyamides, polyesters and polypeptides/proteins
· These are formed from dicarboxylic acids and diamines, making amide links
· The carboxyl and amino groups react to give off water and leave an amide link
· 2 examples of Polyamides are nylon 6,6 and Kevlar
This Kevlar reaction uses a di-acyl
chloride, but the principle is the same…read more

Slide 3

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Polyamides have a very high tensile strength and so are used to make things like robes and
safety equipment
· The also have a relatively high heat resistance (useable up to 150°C) and are resistant to
most chemicals except acids and some alcohols
· Acids hydrolyse the polymer back to the original monomers
· Polyamides are often used in clothing
· These polymers are made from a dicarboxylic acid and diol monomers
· The carboxyl group and hydroxyl groups react to give off water and leave an ester link
· An example of a polyester is Terylene (PET) formed from benzene -1,4,- dicarboxylic acid and
ethane -1,2- diol
· As with polyamides, polyesters are often used in clothing…read more

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