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Organic chemistry
- Functional group: group of atoms which gives an organic compound its characteristic
properties and reactions
- General formula: expresses ratio between atoms in a homologous series
- Homologous series: group of compounds with the same general formula, trend in
chemical and physical properties


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- Bioethanol is the main biofuel and is made by fermenting carbohydrates in crops like sugarcane,
converting glucose to ethanol and CO with a catalyst
- Biodiesel is used by extracting and processing oils from crops like rapeseed

Fractional distillation
- Necessary as crude oil contains too many long hydrocarbons…

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Chemical reactions of the alkanes
- Form CO and HO when they react with oxygen
- Incomplete combustion forms soot (carbon) and CO as well as CO and HO
- Involves free-radical mechanism which occurs rapidly only when alkane is vaporised (hence why
less volatile alkanes burn less easily)…

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Reactions of the alkenes
- Addition of hydrogen (catalytic hydrogenation)
- With nickel catalyst at 150ºC
- Solid catalyst can be held in reaction vessel as products flow in and reactants flow out, so is
very convenient
- Used to be used in manufacture of butter-free spreads as vegetable oil…

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Addition of hydrogen halides to unsymmetrical alkenes
-This is because the carbocation formed with its
positive charge in the middle of the carbon
chain is more stable than the one with its
charge at the end of the chain, as the more
stable one has two alkyl groups pushing


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