Organelles and functions

Properties of all organelles

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Biology Notes
Prokaryotic Cells Eukaryotic Cells
Small cells <5µm Larger cells >10m
Always unicellular Often Multicellular
No Nucleus or any membrane-bound organelles Always have a nucleus and other
membrane-bound organelles: Double
membranes e.g. nucleus, mitochondria and
chloroplasts; Single membranes e.g.: Golgi
complex and Endoplasmic reticulum
DNA is circular without proteins DNA is linear and associated with proteins to
form chromatin
Ribosomes are small (70S) Ribosomes are large (80S)
Cell division is by binary fission Cell division is by mitosis or meiosis
Reproduction is always asexual Reproduction is asexual or sexual
Cell walls: Rigid formed from glycoproteins Cell walls, when present:
(mainly murein) Fungi: rigid, formed from
polysaccharide, chitin.
Plant: rigid, formed from
polysaccharides, e.g.: cellulose.
Animals: no cell wall.
Cellular organelles
Made of a nuclear envelope surrounding the DNA
Envelope has nuclear pores (mRNA travels
through them into the cytoplasm on the way to
meet mitochondria)
DNA is wrapped around proteins (histones) the
DNA and histones together make up Chromatin
Nucleus contains Nucleoli (which makes
All Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus
They are around 10m in size
They are around 1-2µm
They are made of membrane (protein and
2 membranes to maximise surface area
The cristae increases surface area for aerobic
Produce ATP as a product of respiration
Found in both plant and animal cells

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Biology Notes
Chloroplasts are between1-5 µm
A granum is a stack of thylakoid
Found in cytoplasm of plant cells.
Has an inner membrane which is less permeable.…read more

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Biology Notes
Cell Membranes
Membranes made of proteins, phospholipids and sugar
Made of Carbohydrate chains
Forms a barrier between cell and its surroundings
Controls the passage of materials in and out of the cells
Recognises other cells
Receptor sites for hormones and neurotransmitters
Transmission of nerve impulses
Compartmentalization of cell
In prokaryotes and eukaryotes
Cannot be seen under a light microscope, it is too thin to be resolved
Plasmodesmata are cytoplasmic threads that link the cytoplasm of two adjoining cells.…read more


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