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Ionisation Enthalpies
When electrons have been removed from an atom or molecule, it's been ionised.

The energy needed to remove the first electron is called the first ionisation enthalpy.

We define the first ionisation enthalpy of an element as the energy needed to remove one
electron from every atom in…

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Factors Affecting Ionisation Enthalpy
Negative electrons are held in their shells by attraction to the positive nucleus.

To form a positive ion, energy must be supplied to an electron to overcome the attraction
from the nucleus.

Electrons in the outer shell are removed first since they experience the least nuclear…

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Successive Ionisation Enthalpies
More than one electron can be removed from an atom.

So, as well as first ionisation enthalpies, there are second, third, fourth etc.

Successive ionisation energies are a measure of the energy required to remove each
electron in turn.

The equations for the first, second, third and…

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Trends in Ionisation Enthalpies in the Periodic Table

Ionisation Enthalpy across a Period
As you move across a period, the trend is for the
ionisation enthalpies to increase.

This is because it gets harder to remove outer electrons.

This is because the number of protons is increasing,
which means a…


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