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F214 Module 1: Communication and Homeostasis
4.1.3 Hormones

(a) define the terms:
Endocrine A gland that secretes hormones directly into the blood capillaries running through the gland's
gland tissue. Endocrine glands have no ducts
Exocrine A gland that secretes useful molecules, e.g. saliva from the salivary gland, into a duct…

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F214 Module 1: Communication and Homeostasis
(d) describe, with the aid of diagrams and photographs, the histology of the pancreas, and outline its role as an
endocrine and exocrine gland
The pancreas is a small organ lying below and behind the stomach. It is an unusual organ in that it…

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F214 Module 1: Communication and Homeostasis

(e) explain how blood glucose concentration is regulated, with reference to insulin, glucagon and the liver
The cells in the islets of Langerhans monitor the concentration of glucose in the blood. The normal concentration

of glucose is 80120mg per 100cm3 of blood, or 46…

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F214 Module 1: Communication and Homeostasis

(g) compare and contrast the causes of Type 1 (insulindependent) and Type 2 (noninsulindependent) diabetes

Diabetes mellitus a disease in which blood glucose concentrations cannot be controlled effectively, by the

Hyperglycaemia the state in which the blood glucose concentration is too high…

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F214 Module 1: Communication and Homeostasis
Type II diabetes is treated by careful monitoring and control of the diet. Care is taken to match carbohydrate
intake and use. This may eventually be supplemented by insulin injection or use of other drugs which slow down
the absorption of glucose from the…


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