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. 2.23 understand that a balanced diet should include
appropriate proportions of carbohydrate, protein,
lipid, vitamins, minerals, water and dietary fibre

. 2.24 identify sources and describe functions of
carbohydrate, protein, lipid (fats and oils), vitamins A, C
and D, and the mineral ions calcium and iron, water and…

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A balanced diet should include:

Contain the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
Starch, glycogen are complex long chained carbohydrates made
up of smaller units (glucose/maltose)
Provide energy for respiration
Found in pasta, rice, sugar
Long chains of amino acids
Contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen atoms…

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Aids the movement of food through the gut
Found in whole meal bread
Energy requirements

Activity level
Active people (physical jobs: builders) need more energy
than non-active people (office jobs)
Children and teenager need more energy for growth
Pregnant women need more energy to provide the energy

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Structure of the human alimentary canal (gut)

Salivary glands in the mouth produce amylase in the saliva
Food is broken into smaller pieces by the teeth (mechanical digestion)
The tongue molds the small food pieces into a bolus (easy to swallow)
A muscular tube that connects the mouth…

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Excess water is absorbed into the blood by osmosis


Food moves along the gut by contracting and relaxing the muscles in the gut
The circular muscles contract and the longitudinal muscles relax

The circular muscles relax and the longitudinal muscles contract (wide)

The structure of a small…

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Villi are one cell thick- diffusion is quick

Five main stages of Digestion

Taking food into the body (mouth)

The breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small soluble food

Digested molecules enter the blood stream via diffusion through the
walls of the intestines
Food molecules-…

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