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Nucleotides
A nucleotide is a type of biological molecule that is composed of a pentose sugar, a
phosphate group and a nitrogenous base.
They contain the elements Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen and Phosphorus.
Nucleotides are monomers that make up DNA and RNA.

DNA:
The sugar component is Deoxyribose.
The base…

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A purine base contains two carbon nitrogen rings.
Adenine and guanine are purines.
A pyrimidine contains one carbon nitrogen ring.
Thymine, cytosine and uracil are pyrimidine.
Adenine pairs with Thymine in DNA.
Adenine pairs with uracil in RNA.
Cytosine pairs with guanine in DNA and RNA.
Between adenine and thymine…

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ATP is synthesised from ADP and inorganic phosphate using the energy from an
exergonic reaction (energy releasing reaction.)
The ADP is phosphorylated to form ATP.
Energy is stored in a phosphodiester bond.
When this energy is needed by a cell ATP is broken back down into ADP and
inorganic phosphate.…

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It is the order of nitrogenous bases that determine the order of amino acids in a
protein.
Different sequences of bases code for different amino acids.
DNA is degenerate because there are more possible combinations of triplets than
there are amino acids. There are 64 possible triplets but there are…

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