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Physics Unit 5, module 3

Sameer Jahabarali Physics



Rutherford Alpha Particle Scattering Experiment consists of directing
beams of -particles (2 protons and 2 neutrons) at a sheet of gold
foil. This provides the evidence for the existence of charge and the
small size of the nucleus, through the following 3…

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Physics Unit 5, module 3

Sameer Jahabarali Physics



Fundamental particles are the smallest constituents known to build matter. The fundamental particles that
make up protons and neutrons are charged constituent called quarks. The fundamental particles are
grouped in particle families called:

Leptons- The lightest particles, consisting of 12 fundamentals:

Particle…

Page 3

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Physics Unit 5, module 3

Sameer Jahabarali Physics



Charge = 2/3 Charge = -1/3

Up (u) Down (d)

Charm (c) Strange (s)

Top (t) Bottom (b)




-decay is caused by weak interactions (weak force) between quarks. There are two type of -decay ( and ):




Radioactive
decay
Radioactive decay is…

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Physics Unit 5, module 3

Sameer Jahabarali Physics



Gamma Reduced by many cms No mass No Speed
rays of lead or a few metres charge of light
of concrete




Activity (A) of a radioactive material is the rate of decay, which is
directionally proportional to the number of non-decayed atoms…

Page 5

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Physics Unit 5, module 3

Sameer Jahabarali Physics



and annihilates, matter can be changed into energy. This is summarised by the formula E= mc2.

Binding energy is the energy given out when particles bind together, which
gives out energy in form of light and heat as it loses mass. This…

Page 6

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Physics Unit 5, module 3

Sameer Jahabarali Physics




Environmental effects of nuclear waste:

Carcinogenic- harmful to all living things as it may cause cancer as the radioactive material
penetrates through the DNA causing changes to the genetic information.

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