Notes on Design Argument A01 and A02

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Design/ Telelogical Argument- Revision
Definition Important information, incl in essay
A01 information
Theist someone who believes in God ­ as it argues for God's existence
`Telos' means end or goal.
Feature: universe cannot account for its own existence.
World designs show order, purpose and regularity= God exists.
Concerned with specific details like everything is designed for some purpose, living things are
so suited for their environment, conscious beings exist.
The argument tries to show that above features provide strong evidence for God's
A Posteriori
Knowledge that depends on or comes after experience/observation of the natural world.
Specific claims that fall within our experience(here's the evidence of design in the world) and
concluding with a claim about what lies beyond our experience (God exists)
Comes `after the fact' of order and complexity, it is not a priori which is based upon
reasoning before experiencing.
Strive to find something new in the conclusion
Cannot conclusively prove the existence of God even if it is based on true premises.
At best a teleological can only show that God's existence is probable.
inductive reasoning is where the premises support the conclusion, but they do not cause it
Usually based upon information coming from the senses (the order and complexity we
observe with our eyes).
Not deductive, which is where the premises of an argument do entail the conclusion, i.e. the
conclusion is necessary e.g. 1+1=2.
Natural Theology
Stresses the possibility of understanding God via human reason and observation alone.
All cite evidence from the natural world around us; rejecting revealed theology as a source of
evidence for their arguments
Qua Regularity
Design Qua Regularity- Design of order- universe appears to behave according to some
order or rule
e.g. Newton's laws or gravity.
Qua Purpose
Design Qua Purpose- design of purpose- universe appears to have been designed to fulfil
some purpose.
Eg. Ozone Layer

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An argument supporting that God is the designer
Arguments against God being the designer
Aristotle Need to mention. Everyone uses this theory, not optional
He thought that everything has a purpose, revealed in its design.
There is an efficient or final cause.
Efficient cause- the agent that brings something about.
Final cause- the final aim or purpose of something.
Aquinas disagreed with Aristotle: not chance, DIRECTOR
Design argument, 5th of his 5 ways to prove God's existence.…read more

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Theory of Evolution- Random mutation + pressures of natural selection= designer of all living
mechanisms a blind mechanism.
Things did not need a designer instead species had to compete to survive.
Alternative way to how such design can appear.
Goes against: Aquinas ­unintelligent things need something to help achieve their purpose.
Goes against: Paley- everything is a design and the world needs a designer.
F.R. Tennant
ANTHROPIC PRINCIPLE- idea that universe is very tightly balanced could not have achieved it
by chance.…read more

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Feature Strengths Weakness
Inductive New conclusions that premises take us too. ·Jump can be too big from premise with no
argument- skips proof to verify the arguments.
to the
A posteriori Personal observations of the world. ·Kant- our minds order, categorise what we
argument- Not dependent on beliefs and faiths. say and therefore our mind may impose
knowledge after Allows atheists and scientists to take part structure and order on our experiences.
experience in the argument.…read more

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Feature Strengths Weaknesses
Designer is like a Believable, convincing, see a parallel ·Hume- weak analogy. Only logical
watch maker between universe- order regularity, watch. conclusion is that there are many designers.
Designer could be a woman.
Reduces our knowledge and experience of
God into an understandable idea. ·Universe could be faulty, God could be
talentless, cold, young, inexperienced.
Helps us to agree that God is possibly the
designer. ·Mill (God evil) ­ faulty world, if God was
talented he would create a better world.…read more


Aiste - Team GR

This is extremely helpful ! Thank you :)

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