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Chapter 4: Group V.A (15)

The elements of group V.A or Group 15 are:

Atomic Rel. Atomic Mass
symbol e­ configuration
nitrogen N [He]2s22p3 7 14.007
phosphorus P [Ne]3s23p3 15 30.974
arsenic As [Ar]3d104s2 4p3 33 74.92
antimony Sb [Kr]4d105s2 5p3 51 121.75
[Xe]4f14 5d106s2
bismuth Bi 83 208.98…

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Chapter 4: Group V.A (15)
The most well-known reaction of nitrogen is its equilibrium reaction with hydrogen:

Nitrogen is combustible, however it requires high temperature (3000°C). The reaction can yield 2
different oxides. In complete combustion reaction nitrogen(IV) oxide forms. The incomplete
reaction gives nitrogen (II) oxide. There are further…

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Chapter 4: Group V.A (15)
the great extend, is insignificant compared to the overall mass of air. Annually around 56 million tones
of nitrogen and 700 thousands of argon are produced.
Based on N. N. Greenwwod - A. Earnshaw: The Chemistry of Elements

a) Using the given data determine the…

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Chapter 4: Group V.A (15)

­ It has high solubility in water


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Chapter 4: Group V.A (15)
Because of the lone pair ammonia may serve as a base in reactions. In its aqueous solution it is
often handled as ammonium hydroxide. It was proved that no such compound exists. (Without
aqueous medium the use of ammonium hydroxide is forbidden.) Ammonia is physically…

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Chapter 4: Group V.A (15)
At the beginning of the 20th century there was a shortage of naturally occurring, nitrogen-rich
fertilisers, such as Chile saltpetre, which prompted the chemists to look for ways of combining the
nitrogen in the air with hydrogen to form ammonia, which is a convenient starting…

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Chapter 4: Group V.A (15)
A temperature range of 400-500oC is a compromise designed to achieve an acceptable yield
of ammonia (10-20%) within an acceptable time period.
At 200oC and pressures above 750atm there is
an almost 100% conversion of reactants to the
ammonia product.
Since there are difficulties associated…

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Chapter 4: Group V.A (15)

Then the nitrogen passes through the food chain from plants to herbivores to carnivores.
When plants and animals eventually die, the nitrogen compounds are broken down giving ammonia
(ammonification). Some of the ammonia is taken up by the plants; some is dissolved in water or…

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Chapter 4: Group V.A (15)
(Source of information:

Oxo-compounds of Nitrogen

There are 6 different bicomponent compounds of nitrogen with oxygen. As there are 5
valence electrons, the oxidation state varies from +1 to +5. There are so-called binary oxides with
two nitrogen atoms with the same oxidation state…

Page 10

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Chapter 4: Group V.A (15)

Remember that nitrous acid is not a stable molecule, but the salts with nitrite anion are so. Its decomposition
reaction is a redox reaction:




Secondary bond and lattice system:




Physical state at STP:…


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